INFLUENCE OF PHYTO-AMELIORATION ON THE PRIMARY FACTOR OF PRODUCTION (SOIL) AS A METHOD OF AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT MANAGEMENT
Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1
Written by Tatiana CIOLACU, Marina LUNGU
Food security issue is one of the current major concerns in conditions of fast growing global population. In the Republic of Moldova about 73% of territory is arable land, but the amount of agricultural production is not enough to cover the necessities of population. Due to different types of soil degradation, which occurs on 56.4% of agricultural land, crop yields and profit from agricultural sector are relatively low. In the present research it was tested the influence of green manure on soil quality and crop yields. The experiment was conducted in the Central part of Moldova on greyzems. As green manure it was chosen Vicia which was tested in two trials: Vicia villosa Roth -> Vicia sativa L. -> wheat, and Vicia villosa Roth -> sunflower -> wheat. The results of the experiment showed that Vicia improved soil physical qualities, especially in the first trial where soil bulk density decreased from 1.36 g/cm3 to 1.22 g/cm3 in 0-12 cm layer and from 1.52 g/cm3 to 1.41 g/cm3 in 12-20 cm layer. Soil structure and hidrostability of soil aggregates were also improved. Besides, the amount of organic matter in soil increased from 2.41% before the experiment to 2.62% in the 0-12 cm layer in the first case and to 2.57% in the second case. The 2011 year was dry but the effect of Vicia villosa Roth on sunflower crop yield was registered, it increased on average by 0.4 t/ha. The largest harvest of wheat was obtained in the first variant - 4.1 t/ha, wheat after sunflower gave 3.2 t/ha while control plot only 2.4 t/ha. So, there is a good possibility to manage crop yields by use of Vicia as green manure even in dry years which occur once in four years in Moldova. That method will not only raise the harvest of crops but will improve significantly soil quality.