CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL HYBRIDS BETWEEN Aegilops cylindrica HOST. AND COMMON WINTER WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.)
Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1
Written by Hristo STOYANOV
Natural hybrids between wild species in Triticeae and common winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) are important part of breeding due to the mechanism of their creation, and because of the opportunity various qualities from the wild species to be more easily transferred into the genome of cultural plant. At the same time their detection in natural environment is difficult due to limited opportunities for interspecific and intergeneric pollination, fertilization and seed formation. One of the most common wide natural hybrids in wheat agrocenoses resulting from crosses between Aegilops cylindrica as a maternal component and bread wheat as a paternal component. In the survey conducted during 2008 the natural hybrid EXO F1 (Aegilops cylindrica x Triticum aestivum) was found, and its spikes were collected and analyzed for the presence of fertility. From the 10 found seeds only one seed germinated in 2009, and developed into second generation hybrid plant (EXO F2) which reached maturity. The flowering is an open type and continues for a long period of time. Obtained 11 spikes were observed and all of them were determined as completely sterile. Throughout the period of its growth EXO F2 does not give indications of attack by pathogens of powdery mildew and brown rust. There have not been monitored any symptoms and lesions of the same pathogens when collecting EXO F1. Natural hybrids were distinguished by resistance to herbicides transferred from cultural plant because EXO F1 was found in agrocenosis, where treatment against all weed groups was applied. Despite their negative specifications, natural hybrids are a valuable source of genes encoding resistance to biotic and abiotic stress and they could become a good source of breeding material.