EFFECT OF FORCE-FEEDING ONFATTY LIVER AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN MULE DUCKS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1
Written by EFFECT OF FORCE-FEEDING ONFATTY LIVER AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN MULE DUCKS

A study on the changes of body weight, liver and blood serum biochemical parameters - L-aspartat-2-oxoglutarat aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase, total cholesterol, triglycerides and creatinine of male and female mule ducks before and after force-feeding was carried out. The forcefeeding of ducks with maize was taken after 74-days of age and continued 13 days. During force-feeding period, the body weight increased with 47.25% in males (from 3983±133.85 g to 5865±212.33 g) and with 38.06% in female ducks (from 3450±215.06 g to 4763±87.73 g). The liver weight increased 7.53 times in males (from 82±5.40 g to 600±22.86 g) and 5.65 times in females (from 77±4.81 g to 435±46.79 g). After 13 days of force-feeding significantly increased the blood serum concentration of alanine aminotransferase (P<0.05 in males and P<0.01 in females), total cholesterol (P<0.001 in both sexes) and triglycerides (P<0.001 in both sexes), and decreased of γ-glutamyltransferase (P<0.01 in males and P<0.05 in females), and creatinine (P<0.01 in males and P<0.001 in females).

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GERZILOV V., PETROV P. B., BOCHUKOV A. 2013, EFFECT OF FORCE-FEEDING ONFATTY LIVER AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN MULE DUCKS. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 193-196.

EFFECTS OF VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENTED DIET ON EGG PRODUCTION PARAMETERS AND A-TOCHOPHEROL DEPOSITION IN THE YOLK

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1
Written by Natasha GJORGOVSKA, Kiril FILEV, Vasil KOSTOV, Rodne NASTOVA

The transfer of vitamin E from high level supplemented diets in egg yolk, effect on egg production and age was investigated. Hisex Brown, molted laying hens, assigned in three groups were used in the experiment. Two, 80 weeks old, hens were accommodated in each cage. The hens were fed basal diet, containing 45 IU vitamin E kg-1 (group 1), basal diet supplemented 150 IU vitamin E kg-1 (group 2) and basal diet supplemented 300 IU vitamin E kg-1 (group 3). The egg production, egg weight and albumen weight were significantly higher in the experimental groups, but the egg yolk has similar weight in all three groups. The content of vitamin E in the yolk was measured. The concentration of vitamin E in 100 g yolk in group 1, 2 and 3 was 12.78 IU, 21.34 IU and 42.28 IU, respectively. The transfer of vitamin E was significantly higher in the experimental groups (p<0.01).

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GJORGOVSKA N., FILEV K., KOSTOV V., NASTOVA R. 2013, EFFECTS OF VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENTED DIET ON EGG PRODUCTION PARAMETERS AND A-TOCHOPHEROL DEPOSITION IN THE YOLK. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 189-192.

EFFICIENCY AND SELECTIVITY OF NEW HERBICIDES ON FODDER MAIZE

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1
Written by Maya DIMITROVA, Ivan ZHALNOV, Ilian ZHELYAZKOV, Dimitar STOYCHEV

Within the period 2011-2012 in the experimental field of the Agricultural University, Plovdiv, we conducted field experiments using the herbicides Lumux 538 SK, Gardoprim plus gold 500 SK, Wing, Merlin flex, which were applied to the soil after planting the crops and before their germination and also the herbicides Laudis OD, Elumis, Stelar, Kaspar 55 WE, which were applied to the leaves during the vegetation period of the maize. The experiments were made using the block method over an area of 21 m2 in four repetitions. It has been established that the herbicides demonstrate excellent selectivity for this crop, which was measured on the EWRS scale in marks and control the existing annual late-spring types: Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Solanum nigrum L., Setaria spp., Echinochloa crus-galli L. and others. The weeds in the control sample without herbicides have a very high density and on the 40th day after treatment their number reaches 602 plants/m2.

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DIMITROVA M., ZHALNOV I., ZHELYAZKOV I., STOYCHEV D. 2013, EFFICIENCY AND SELECTIVITY OF NEW HERBICIDES ON FODDER MAIZE. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 47-51.

EVALUATION OF CERULOPLASMIN AS AN ACUTE PHASE PROTEIN IN INFECTED DOGS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1
Written by Dimitrinka ZAPRYANOVA, Evgenia DISHLYANOVA, Teodora MIRCHEVA GEORGIEVA

Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is a sensitive indicator of inflammation and infection. It is a liver-derived a2-glycoprotein and is synthesized primarily as a positive acute-phase reactant. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is oft associated with suppurative infections and is recognized as an inherent member of the microflora of the skin of humans and dogs and is responsible for a diverse spectrum of diseases. This infection was chosen because Staphylococcus aureus presented in a lot of animals –dogs, horses, cats, pigs, cattle, pigeons. Our aim in this experiment was to examine Cp concentrations in dogs that were exposed to Staphylococcus aureus infection and then evaluate how Cp could be used as an indicator of this bacterial infection in dogs. For that, Cp concentrations were determined in plasmas from 9 mongrel male dogs (in experimental group) and 6 mongrel male dogs (in control group) at the age of 2 years and body weight 12-15 kg. The infection was reproduced by inoculation of 5 ml 24 h broth culture of S. aureus strain with density of 3.1x109 c.f.u./ml in the lumbar region of experimental animals and same quantity saline in control (non-infected) dogs. Blood samples were collected into heparinized tubes before inoculation (hour 0) then at hours 6, 24, 48, 72 and on days 7, 14, 21 at the same time was taking blood and from controls. One day after inoculation, we observed that Cp showed consistent upward trend and between 24 to 72 hours, the values were from 66.55 to 66.88 mg/L, after that we noticed a peak of the concentration on the 7th day (109.5±7.82 mg/L). At the end of the experimental period (21 days) this acute phase protein remained still higher (81.88±6.59 mg/L) compared to baseline. In conclusion, dogs experimentally infected with Staphylococcus aureus showed an acute phase response characterized by statistically significant (p<0.001) twofold increase in Cp concentration on the seventh day after inoculation. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that ceruloplasmin can be a useful marker for the presence of staphylococcal infection in dogs.

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ZAPRYANOVA D., DISHLYANOVA E., MIRCHEVA GEORGIEVA T. EVALUATION OF CERULOPLASMIN AS AN ACUTE PHASE PROTEIN IN INFECTED DOGS . AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 213-216.

EVALUATION OF DEVEGECIDI IRRIGATION SCHEME ON THE IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT IN SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA REGION OF TURKEY

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1
Written by Nese UZEN, Ramazan YOLCU, Oner CETIN

Some of the irrigation schemes in Turkey have three main problems in terms of irrigation management and operation. These are (a) inequality on water distribution to the farmers, (b) no obtaining the appropriate benefits from the irrigation projects or irrigation schemes since the inadequacy on irrigation management and (c) insufficient on maintenance of the irrigation schemes. The irrigation schemes in Turkey were operated by the government sector (DSI, State Hydraulic Works) up to 1994. After then, DSI has transferred the irrigation schemes to the Water User Associations (WUA). Devegeçidi Irrigation Scheme located in Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey receives irrigation water from Devegecidi Dam. Total project area is 10044 ha however 6900 ha of this area is planned to irrigate. On the other hand, although cotton was planned as 13%, the realized rate of cotton area was ranged from 12% through 97% according to the years. The mainly cultivated crops are cotton, cereals and vegetables. The capacity of the main conveyor canal is 9 m3/s. The practically irrigated area was ranged from 4250 ha through 5800 ha depending on years. Some farmers do not irrigate the fields because of fallow and the lack of maintenance on irrigation schemes. Some farmers can not get the water because the fields are the far to the irrigation schemes or water can not be reached to the end of the scheme. In addition the over irrigation is another problem. The irrigation methods are border (75 %), furrow (17%) and sprinkler irrigation (8%). Although the water which is flowed to the scheme is measured, it is not measured at the distribution points in the fields. Approximately 31% of the total water are surface runoff. The main problems in the irrigation scheme are inappropriate institutionalization, no measuring water and no applying the penalties to the farmers. All these cause over irrigation and lower irrigation performances. In this article, the main problems on irrigation management and operation are discussed and some critical solutions are also presented.

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UZEN N., YOLCU R., CETIN O. 2013, EVALUATION OF DEVEGECIDI IRRIGATION SCHEME ON THE IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT IN SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA REGION OF TURKEY. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 151-156.

FARMERS’ EDUCATION AND FARM PRODUCTIVITY. EVIDENCE FROM DENMARK AND FROM ROMANIA

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1
Written by Gina FÎNTÎNERU, Ove MADSEN

The structural issues of the agricultural sector have important consequences for the productivity and efficiency of farming. The paper focusses on the impact of farm managers training structure upon farm performance. Based upon data from Eurostat and Statistics Denmark, it is shown that, as expected, basic or full agricultural education of the farm manager has a positive impact on farm productivity, measured as statistical output divided by number of employees on the farm. Results are discussed in terms of the training structure of the farm managers in the two countries as capacity to perform better. In the case of Romania, the impact is striking. The productivity for farm managers who have basic agricultural training is 152% higher than productivity for farm managers, who have only practical experience, and productivity for farmers with full agricultural education is 106% higher than productivity for managers with only basic farm education. For Denmark the effect is less striking, but still very impressive.

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FÎNTÎNERU G., MADSEN O. 2013, FARMERS’ EDUCATION AND FARM PRODUCTIVITY. EVIDENCE FROM DENMARK AND FROM ROMANIA. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 175-180.

FUNGAL AND BACTERIAL GLYCOCONJUGATS INTERACTIONS: SPECIFIC MECHANISM BETWEEN LECTIN PRODUCING FUNGI AND BACILLUS BIOCONTROL STRAINS?

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1
Written by Oana-Alina SICUIA, Călina-Petruţa CORNEA, Aneta POP

The mechanisms involved in the antagonistic action of biocontrol agents are intensively studied and several types were identified. A special attention was accorded to Bacillus strains that exhibit broad host spectrum against fungal pathogens. By studying in vitro interaction between some Bacillus biocontrol strains and some plant pathogenic fungal strains belonging to Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium sp. and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum species, a precipitation line was observed at the inhibition area level. This outcome was detected in co-cultivation of the biocontrol bacteria with the mentioned fungal species described as specific lectins producers, but not when strains of Alternaria, Fusarium or Pythium were used. The present study included in vitro co-cultivation of the biocontrol strains with B. cinerea on PDA medium supplemented with different carbon sources, sugars that are known to be interacting with different kind of carbohydrate-binding proteins. Significant differences in bacterial growth limitation were observed when the precipitation line was more evident and a reduced inhibition of the fungal growth was registered. Based on the fact that carbohydrate-binding proteins, also referred as lectin or agglutinins, have functions in defense responses to pathogen invaders, two hypotheses may be issued: there could be a chain reaction by which the biocontrol bacteria induces a defense mechanism in some fungi, and the lectin or lectin-like producing fungi reacts in self-defense and bind the nutrients so that the antagonistic bacteria are limited in growth and that certain substrates, enriched with particular carbohydrates, facilitate the activation of some defense mechanism in fungi against some antagonistic bacteria“, as a possible consequence of the low bacterial glycoproteins specificity for those carbohydrates, compared with the lectins or lectin-like compounds of some fungi that can precipitate the carbohydrate nutrients as defense mechanism against antagonistic bacteria, similar to the nutritional competition.

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SICUIA O. A., CORNEA C. P., POP A. 2013, FUNGAL AND BACTERIAL GLYCOCONJUGATS INTERACTIONS: SPECIFIC MECHANISM BETWEEN LECTIN PRODUCING FUNGI AND BACILLUS BIOCONTROL STRAINS?. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 127-132.

HELMINTH COMMUNITIES AND ECOLOGICAL APPRAISAL FOR THE CONDITION OF THE MARITSA RIVER, BULGARIA

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1
Written by Diana KIRIN

Biodiversity and ecological particularities of the parasite communities of the northern pike (Esox lucius L., 1758) from the Maritsa River were studied during 2012. Nine specimens of E. lucius were examined with standard techniques for parasites and heavy metal contamination. The purpose of this research is to represent new data for the biodiversity, prevalence, intensity and mean intensity, mean abundance of parasite communities of E. lucius from the Maritsa River. Concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu) in fish (muscle, liver, kidneys and bones), some endohelminth species as bioindicators and bottom sediments were analyzed. The obtained results for the parasite communities of E. lucius correspond and are in close connection with dependence of the biology and ecology of the determined species of helminthes and the place of the intermediate hosts as bioindicators for the status of the studied natural freshwater ecosystems. The results may be applied in the various monitoring systems for assessment and forecast of the Maritsa River condition.

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KIRIN D. 2013, HELMINTH COMMUNITIES AND ECOLOGICAL APPRAISAL FOR THE CONDITION OF THE MARITSA RIVER, BULGARIA. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 197-202.

INDOLENT CORNEAL ULCERS IN DOGS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1
Written by Iuliana IONAŞCU, Lia ION

Indolent or refractory corneal ulcer is a chronic, superficial, nonhealing erosion, usually affecting older dogs, especially Boxers. Its characteristics are failure to heal within 1-2 weeks, a poor attachment of the epithelium surrounding the lesion to the corneal stroma and the fluoresceine staining of the affected area. The goals for the treatment of indolent ulcer are removing the loose epithelium, promoting the healing process and protection of the cornea. This article presents the medical treatment of refractory corneal ulcers in dogs and the importance of using contact lenses for reducing the healing time.

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IONASCU I., ION L. 2013, INDOLENT CORNEAL ULCERS IN DOGS. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 203-206.

INFLUENCE OF PHYTO-AMELIORATION ON THE PRIMARY FACTOR OF PRODUCTION (SOIL) AS A METHOD OF AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT MANAGEMENT

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1
Written by Tatiana CIOLACU, Marina LUNGU

Food security issue is one of the current major concerns in conditions of fast growing global population. In the Republic of Moldova about 73% of territory is arable land, but the amount of agricultural production is not enough to cover the necessities of population. Due to different types of soil degradation, which occurs on 56.4% of agricultural land, crop yields and profit from agricultural sector are relatively low. In the present research it was tested the influence of green manure on soil quality and crop yields. The experiment was conducted in the Central part of Moldova on greyzems. As green manure it was chosen Vicia which was tested in two trials: Vicia villosa Roth -> Vicia sativa L. -> wheat, and Vicia villosa Roth -> sunflower -> wheat. The results of the experiment showed that Vicia improved soil physical qualities, especially in the first trial where soil bulk density decreased from 1.36 g/cm3 to 1.22 g/cm3 in 0-12 cm layer and from 1.52 g/cm3 to 1.41 g/cm3 in 12-20 cm layer. Soil structure and hidrostability of soil aggregates were also improved. Besides, the amount of organic matter in soil increased from 2.41% before the experiment to 2.62% in the 0-12 cm layer in the first case and to 2.57% in the second case. The 2011 year was dry but the effect of Vicia villosa Roth on sunflower crop yield was registered, it increased on average by 0.4 t/ha. The largest harvest of wheat was obtained in the first variant - 4.1 t/ha, wheat after sunflower gave 3.2 t/ha while control plot only 2.4 t/ha. So, there is a good possibility to manage crop yields by use of Vicia as green manure even in dry years which occur once in four years in Moldova. That method will not only raise the harvest of crops but will improve significantly soil quality.

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CIOLACU T., LUNGU M. 2013, INFLUENCE OF PHYTO-AMELIORATION ON THE PRIMARY FACTOR OF PRODUCTION (SOIL) AS A METHOD OF AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT MANAGEMENT. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 157-162.


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