LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: BY-PRODUCTS IN BIOFUELS PRODUCTION BATTLE; RAPESEED VS. Camelina sativa L.

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1
Written by Stelian Matei PETRE, Ştefana JURCOANE, Paul DOBRE, Romulus PETCU, Delia DIMITRIU

One of the main objectives of the Kyoto Protocol and also the global directives is the reduction of GreenHouse Gas emissions (GHG) from consumption of fossil fuels and biofuels used mostly for transportation. Nowadays, a very important aspect is the technology process for production of biofuels together with the by-products from different renewable sources of raw materials. In this study two sources of oil for biofuels production in Romania, are studied: the well-known Rapeseed (Brassica napus) and Camelina (Camelina sativa), a new source of oil for several type of biofuels. Depending on the kind raw materials used, the by-products obtained during crushing of seeds and after transesterification or hydrogenation and hydrotreatment of the oil can be used either as feed stocks, or as secondary fuels. In this study the Camelina cultivation requirements is assess by the authors, as well as the pilot scale oil recovery to calculate life cycle analyses of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy demand; a comparison with the rapeseed cultivation in Romania is also conducted. The team has determined the response to model assumptions including the allocation methodology, as part of N fertilizer application rate. The use of Nitrogen as a fertilizer, the use of Rapeseed and Camelina by-products can also be related for further GHG emissions and energy consumption assessment and investigation. The best result obtained for camelina value chain, regarding the greenhouse gas emissions reduction was over 60% compared to petroleum jet fuel reported.

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PETRE S. M., JURCOANE Ş., DOBRE P., PETCU R., DIMITRIU D. 2013, LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: BY-PRODUCTS IN BIOFUELS PRODUCTION BATTLE; RAPESEED VS. Camelina sativa L.. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 58-65.

MANAGEMENT OF SOIL QUALITY FROM ORCHARDS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1
Written by Tatiana NAGACEVSCHI

Soil cover quality of the Republic of Moldova on most agricultural land is unsatisfactory and critical on a part of land. Anthropogenic factors of soil cover degradation are maximum involvement of land in agriculture and soil compaction by heavy machinery that lead to degradation of soil structure. It is very important to study and manage these factors when soils are mechanically worked and negative consequences occur. Human intervention changes natural variability of soil characteristics both vertically and horizontally. Maximum involvement of land in traditional agriculture (especially for fruit-tree growing) led to humus losses, structure degradation, compaction and soil erosion. It is necessary to study deep tilled soils, which forma group of anthropogenic soils, in order to determine the influence of heavy machinery on changes in physical properties of soils in orchards. At the very beginning deep plowing decreases parameters of bulk density with 9-32%, but from the first year of existence of orchards a series of maintenance operations are made, heavy machinery pass, on average, on the same tracks up to 10-15 times annually. That results in soil compaction between rows especially on machinery tracks. Bulk density is differentiated both vertically and horizontally, having extreme values of 1.59 to 1.60 g/cm3 in 10-30 cm layer on machinery tracks and is characterized as strongly compacted. Deep tilled soils being used in orchards suffer significant changes and form a new anthropic soil profile as a result of compaction process, a quantitative expression of which is bulk density and degree of compaction. The purpose of the present research is to highlight soils’ physical properties and soil processes that directly and indirectly influence plant life, forming a functional unit called soil ecological complex; assessment of soil quality and its importance for agroecosystems; emphasizing of negative changes in physical quality of the soil and the factors influencing these changes.

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NAGACEVSCHI T. 2013, MANAGEMENT OF SOIL QUALITY FROM ORCHARDS. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 185-188.

MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF INSTRUMENTAL AND SENSORIAL DATASETS: THE CASE OF AROMAS AND THEIR PERCEPTION IN WINES

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1
Written by Mariana GONZÁLEZ-ÁLVAREZ, Raquel NOGUEROL-PATO, Carmen GONZÁLEZBARREIRO, Beatriz CANCHO-GRANDE, Jesus SIMAL-GÁNDARA

The purpose of this work is to look for changes in the aroma profile of wines obtained under Critical Agricultural Practices (CAP), in comparison with wines treated under Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). Four new fungicides (mandipropamid, valifenalate, cyazofamid and famoxadone) to control downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) were applied under CAP in an experimental vineyard producing white grapes Vitis vinifera cv. Godello. Several fatty acids, their esters and acetates were formed during the winemaking process in higher levels under GAP and could be expected to strongly influence the aroma of the wines by introducing floral, fruity and spicy nuances. The concentrations of six compounds (2-phenylethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl octanoate, 4-vinylguaiacol, 3- methylbutanoic acid and methionol) were found to suffice with a view to discriminating between wines from grapes treated with fungicides under CAP and under GAP. The critically treated wine was moved to a sweeter balance with a ripe fruit taste, which are associated to higher viscosity and also a higher cloudy colour. We conducted exploratory research with a view to correle the results of instrumental analyses of the aroma compounds in Godello wine and their sensory perception, using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) for comparisons. PCA revealed the distribution of volatile compounds with near-unity or higher Odour Activity Values (OAVs) in relation to sensory characteristics, and PLS exposed relationships between sensory descriptors and volatile compounds in the wines.

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GONZALEZ-ALVAREZ M., NOGUEROL-PATO R., GONZALEZ-BARREIRO C., CANCHO-GRANDE B., SIMAL-GANDARA J. 2013, MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF INSTRUMENTAL AND SENSORIAL DATASETS: THE CASE OF AROMAS AND THEIR PERCEPTION IN WINES. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 9-21.

PERSISTENT ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN THE URBAN AND PERI-URBAN AREA OF PLOIESTI CITY

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1
Written by Mirela Alina SANDU, Ioan BICA, Ana VIRSTA, Mihaela PREDA, Vasilica Silvia STAN

The paper presents an original research regarding the incidence of polychlorinated biphenyls compounds (PCBs) and organochlorine insecticides (HCH and DDT) on the urban area of Ploiesti. Due to the high level of toxicity, international legislation provides the list of PCBs compounds to be monitored: PCB28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180. Sample collection was made in 27 points located in ornamental garden, parks, and street intersections. The chemical analyses were conducted in the Laboratory of National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science, Agro- Chemistry and Environment of Bucharest, according to an own analytical method adapted after EPA. There were determined physical properties and chemical concentrations for humus, organic carbon, mobile phosphorus and potassium, total nitrogen, as well as the PCBs, DDT and α - , β- and γ- HCH. According to the Romanian standards, the concentrations of PCBs overcome the normal values in all sampling points and intervention threshold in seven locations. This could have a high impact on people health - especially children and old people - and some intervention measures need to be taken.

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SANDU M. A., BICA I., VÎRSTA A., PREDA M., STAN V. S. 2013, PERSISTENT ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN THE URBAN AND PERI-URBAN AREA OF PLOIESTI CITY. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 143-150.

PLUM GENETIC RESOURCES AND BREEDING

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1
Written by Valentina BOZHKOVA

Plum genetic resources were studied in the period 2004-2012. The fruiting type was established and the cultivars were divided into three groups. The major characteristics like fruit and stone weight, dry matter and acid content, fertility, resistance to PPV, frost and drought hardiness were identified and donors were selected for the breeding aims. 43315 flowers were pollinated in 61 parental combinations in the frames of the breeding programme and 459 hybrid plants were obtained and have been studied. Elites of valuable economic and biological characteristics were selected.

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BOZHKOVA V. 2013, PLUM GENETIC RESOURCES AND BREEDING. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 83-88.

RE-THINKING DAIRY COW FEEDING IN LIGHT OF FOOD SECURITY

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1
Written by Wilhelm KNAUS

The competition for arable land to grow food, feeds, and biomass for fuel production (mostly from grain) has reached an all-time peak. Recent publications suggest that crop production would have to about double to keep up with the estimated demands resulting from population growth, dietary changes (especially meat consumption), and increasing bioenergy use, unless there are dramatic changes in agricultural consumption patterns (Foley et al., 2011). We have seen fundamental changes in the feeding of cattle over the last 50 years. Previously, cattle were fed almost exclusively feeds that were unsuitable for human consumption. The availability of cheap fossil energy for the production of mineral fertilizers and pesticides, the cultivation of land and long-distance shipping of crops has made it possible and even profitable to feed even ruminants enormous amounts of grain and pulses. As a result, highly intensive animal production systems have emerged. Grain and pulses, however, are potentially edible for humans. This means that these supposedly highly efficient animal production systems contribute to the increasing competition for arable land for crops. In dairy farming, to attain lactation of 10,000 kg/year and beyond, the amount of concentrates in the ration has to be maximized. Most of these concentrates are grain and pulse products. This kind of dairy cow feeding is not only contradictory to the evolutionary adaptation of cattle, which allows these animals to be able to digest fibrous plant substrate, but has also resulted in an increasingly unfavorable food balance (i.e. animal-derived food per unit of feed input potentially edible to humans). The potential of ruminants to efficiently convert forages from grasslands, pastures, and fiber-rich by-products from the processing of plant-derived foods into milk and meat will soon be of great significance, because arable land is becoming scarce and the demand for human food is growing. The use of highly productive arable land to produce animal feed results in a net loss for the potential global food supply.

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KNAUS W. 2013, RE-THINKING DAIRY COW FEEDING IN LIGHT OF FOOD SECURITY. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 36-40.

SCIENTIFIC SUBSTANTIATION FOR THE INTRODUCTION, ON ROMANIAN TERRITORY, OF Lycium barbarum L.:A SPECIES WITH SANOGENE PROPERTIES

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1
Written by Ioana Claudia MENCINICOPSCHI, Viorica BĂLAN

In the year 2010, studies have been started at U.S.A.M.V. Bucharest in order to meet the requirements for the scientific substantiation of the development of Lycium barbarum L. plant cultivation on Romanian specific spreading area. The aforementioned studies focused on the biological, agronomical and health-promoting properties of this plant species. Our study presents interpretations, conclusions and a synthesis regarding biological characteristics such as: growth and development dynamics of the goji plants’ vegetative and reproductive parts, between the years 2010 and 2012. The quantitative and qualitative aspects of the plants’ fruit production were also part of the research, as fructification characteristics, bio-physical and bio-chemical properties of goji berries and the quantity and quality of the fruit yield were all studied. This work also considers the adaptability potential of the Lycium plants to the environmental and climatic conditions of the Northern Bucharest region by mentioning: the traversing of vegetative and fructifying phases and the plants’ resistance to diseases and pests. So far, there have been certain differences, between the two studied Lycium barbarum L. varieties, regarding adaptability potentials and biological characteristics. The significance of our contribution is that it aims to provide scientific support for the cultivation of goji species in Romania.

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MENCINICOPSCHI I. C., BĂLAN V. 2013, SCIENTIFIC SUBSTANTIATION FOR THE INTRODUCTION, ON ROMANIAN TERRITORY, OF Lycium barbarum L.:A SPECIES WITH SANOGENE PROPERTIES. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 95-102.

STUDIES CONCERNING THE CHARACTERISATION OF A PROBIOTIC PREPARATION, CONTAINING A MIXTURE OF LACTOBACILLUS PURE BIOMASS AND MEDIA WITH POLLEN AND HONEY

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1
Written by Ana Despina IONESCU, Angela CASARICA, Elena BOCA, Sultana NITA, Iuksel RASIT, Adrian VAMANU, Emanuel VAMANU

This paper presents the results obtained on the last years in the frame of a National Research Project which has in view the biotechnological studies concerning a probiotic manufacture on media with pollen and honey, using some selected bacterial strains and several essential factors for direct and effective microbial biomass production. A set of chemical and pharmacological analyses was established, in order to substantiate scientifically the valuable content of this type of probiotic preparation, which can be used in order to improve the balance of intestinal microflora. Our final results were subsequently used for an invention demand concerning a lactobacilli biomass having a strictly determined microbiological and chemical composition and used as the main component of a probiotic preparation, which was approved by our National Authorities and which has obtained the Silver Medal and the International Award of the Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering Poznan - Poland - “Medal Product” at the International Contest Innova-Eureka, Brussels, 2011.

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IONESCU A. D., CASARICA A., BOCA E., NITA S., RASIT I., VAMANU A., VAMANU E. 2013, STUDIES CONCERNING THE CHARACTERISATION OF A PROBIOTIC PREPARATION, CONTAINING A MIXTURE OF LACTOBACILLUS PURE BIOMASS AND MEDIA WITH POLLEN AND HONEY. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 113-116.

STUDIES TO SUPPORT THE PROCLAMATION OF PEONY AS ROMANIA’S NATIONAL FLOWER

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1
Written by Florin TOMA, Elena ŞELARU, Mihaela Ioana GEORGESCU, Sorina PETRA, Ioana Marcela PĂDURE, Diana ZAMFIR-VASCA, Oana VENAT

Many countries have one or more national flowers representative of the geographic area or culture and traditions. In Romania, several proposals have been made for choosing a national flower but none of the proposals has been finalized by a legislative act to formalize the national flower. The authors of this article suggest that peony be proclaimed Romania's national flower. Among the arguments of this proposal there are: peony species with high ornamental potential biological and growing naturally in several parts of the country, in reserves protected by law; besides spontaneous species there are also cultivated species, found in a variety of significant shapes and colours (100-130 species and cultivars taxa identified to date); the peony flowers are very popular in the whole country, often being subject of traditions, music, poetry, literature and painting of the Romanian people; to honor peony, festivals and celebrations are held annually in many areas of the country; the beauty and grace of the plants (especially the flowers) and their biological qualities (perennial productivity, technological flexibility, adaptability ecological), The peony species are almost never absent from parks and gardens and enable the development of other types of exceptional floral arrangements: in the consciousness of the Romanian people, physical and spiritual beauty are often associated with peony, as evidenced by the widespread use of the name of peony and its derivatives for family name, first name, city name, street name, name of birds and animals; in addition to its ornamental use, the peony is used for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The paper will further develop these arguments. In addition, the present work will describe all species of peony that are common in our country, as well as the geographic areas were wild species of peony are present. Together with this presentation, the authors propose actions to popularize the importance and beauty of the herbaceous peony species and to formalize them as Romania's national flower. To this end, the paper will be accompanied by lists of adhesion and will be presented in other specialized universities and research institutions in our country. After gathering the necessary signatures, we propose to proclaim the peony as the national flower of Romania by law in the Romanian Parliament.

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TOMA F., ŞELARU E., GEORGESCU M. I., PETRA S., PĂDURE I. M., ZAMFIRVASCA D., VENAT O. 2013, STUDIES TO SUPPORT THE PROCLAMATION OF PEONY AS ROMANIA’S NATIONAL FLOWER. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 103-112.

THE IMPACT OF SUBSIDY AND RISK INSURANCE MEASURES ON THE EFFICIENCY OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1
Written by Elena EFROS

In this paper the author presents the results of scientific research on the problems faced by the farmers in the Republic of Moldova concerning the proper use of various forms of subsidies. The conclusion contains some recommendations on the effective measures for the state support of the agricultural sector, resulting from the research of the experience of other countries in this field.

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EPROS E. 2013, THE IMPACT OF SUBSIDY AND RISK INSURANCE MEASURES ON THE EFFICIENCY OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 169-174.


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