INFLUENCE OF ARCHITECTURE ON WOODEN HORIZONTAL CONSTRUCTION ISLUTATED BY STRAW BALES

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 1
Written by Miloslav KOVÁĆ

Already at the beginning of the project is architect exposed to questions about construction. Accurate prepare reduces construction failures by assemblage and on the other hand helps to articulate architectonic meaning of concept. Wooden skeleton compared to brick-concrete building offer more occasions to expose construction members, at some common techniques it’s a must. Present wooden structures insulated with straw bales as standard practice turning into scientific structures designed with relation to interior and exterior design. Wave of ecology architecture supports development of these straw structures and the number of these way considering investors is raising. Horizontal constructions represent three classes: basement slab (first floor), first floor ceiling (second floor), roof (maximum angle 5°). On the ground of construction types: heavy wooden construction, light wooden construction and prefabricated panels (pre-insulated, on site insulated). Perception of exterior horizontal construction depends on overhang of construction elements over closed perimeter. Overhang of second floor and roof takes the main influence of overall appearance mainly leaving construction visible without lathing. Perception of interior horizontal construction depends on material composition and required properties of these layer. Exposed beams and joists are evidence of construction type, enrich form and color palette of interior and facade. Dimension of exposure determine perception, that is affected by number of story’s, position in terrain, size, color and technique of realization.

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Kovać M. 2014, INFLUENCE OF ARCHITECTURE ON WOODEN HORIZONTAL CONSTRUCTION ISLUTATED BY STRAW BALES. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 81-83.

INFLUENCE OF N, P CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS, ROW DISTANCE AND SEEDING RATE ON CAMELINA CROP

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 1
Written by Paul DOBRE, Ștefana JURCOANE, Stelica CRISTEA, Florentina MATEI, Andra Cecilia MORARU, Liviu DINCĂ

Camelina sativa is considered to be a second generation crop used for advanced biofuel production. In Romania research is being done regarding the agronomic factors which influence camelina yield potential. The objective of this study was to identify the technological elements that are most suitable for camelina cultivation. Therefore, different concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus based fertilizers, as well as various row distances and seeding rates were studied. The experiments were conducted at Moara Domneasca (Ilfov county) in 2013. The experiments were placed in subdivided plots, in three replicates. The results showed that the highest yield potential was obtained when N60 P50 fertilization scheme was applied. Consequently, the application of large amounts of fertilizers is not necessary. The row distance of 12.5 cm prevented weed infestation and the crop developed well. The data obtained can be useful for more extensive studies regarding the agro-technical aspects of camelina crop.

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Dobre P., Jurcoane Ş., Cristea S., Matei F., Moraru A. C., Dincă L. 2014, INFLUENCE OF N, P CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS, ROW DISTANCE AND SEEDING RATE ON CAMELINA CROP. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 49-53.

INFLUENCE OF SOME PLANT SPECIES AND SOIL TILLAGE UPON THE FERTILIZATION OF CHROMIC LUVISOL IN THE ROMANIAN PLAIN

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 1
Written by Liviu DINCĂ, Gheorghe ȘTEFANIC, Dumitru Ilie SĂNDOIU, Costică CIONTU, Wilson Antonio PEDRO, Alexandru Nicolae ANDREESCU

Crop plant and basic tillage can influence soil fertility. Grown in the same place after three years, crop plant determines an annual influence that may be modified in the following year. Basic tillage strongly influences the arable horizon, especially when it is repeated several years later. The paper presents our attempts to determine both plant influences in crop rotation and the basic soil loosening maintained unchanged for 12 years. Laboratory analysis was performed in order to determine the effect of chemical, biological and pedo-enzymical influences on 0-20 cm depth of the chromic luvisol horizon where the middle term experiment was placed at Moara Domneasca - Ilfov. Results were statistically analyzed by the multiple comparison method (Snedecor, 1965). The steady conclusions show that the temporary influence of the plant cultivated in a three-year crop rotation, must be ignored. Ploughing and disking by repeated loosening (for 12 years) produced a better state of fertility in comparison with permanent chiselling.

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Dincă L., Ștefanic G., Săndoiu D. I., Ciontu C., Pedro W. A., Andreescu A. N. 2014, INFLUENCE OF SOME PLANT SPECIES AND SOIL TILLAGE UPON THE FERTILIZATION OF CHROMIC LUVISOL IN THE ROMANIAN PLAIN. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 44-48.

MICROENCAPSULATION IN FOOD PRODUCTS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 1
Written by Petru ALEXE, Cristian DIMA

In the food industry, encapsulation process greatly contributed to the development of functional foods. Functional foods are defined as being the foods that in addition to nutrients, supply the organism with components that contribute to cure the diseases, or to reduce the risk of developing them. Thus, functional foods can contain bioactive components such as: vitamins, peptides, minerals, fatty acids, poly-unsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols, lycopene, antioxidants, enzymes and living cells such as probiotics. The extreme sensitivity of many of these desired compounds leads to their deterioration, at conditions prevailing during food processing and storage, and thus significantly compromises our capability to incorporate them into foods. In this context, encapsulation of food ingredients are made: to protect the bioactive components against the some physical-chemical agents (temperature, pH, moisture, enzymes, oxygen, redox potential, UV light) during the storage; to prevent the reaction of bioactive componentsonents with other components in food products; for masking the bad tasting or smelling; to prevent the evaporation and degradation of volatile active components; to promote the conversion of liquid active compounds into a powder; to assure the controlled release of biocompounds etc. This paper aims to provide a short overview of commonly used processes to encapsulate food active components.

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Alexe P., Dima C. 2014, MICROENCAPSULATION IN FOOD PRODUCTS. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 9-14.

MODERN LEARNING SYSTEM AND IMPROVED CURRICULA FOR EDUCATION MANAGEMENT IN LIFE SCIENCES, TO PROMOTE BUSINESS ENHANCEMENT

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 1
Written by Nicoleta RADU, Ana Aurelia CHIRVASE, Sanda VELEA, Narcisa BABEANU, Ovidiu POPA, Renata STEPONAVICIENE, Fantxoa HASTARAN

Due to the increasingly ageing population and the demand for improved quality of life, the life sciences sector has strong growth potential (8.3% growth in 2007), the sustainable development applications being of utmost interest. But most of the countries recently entered the European Union, with real academic base in Life Sciences, and with an important request towards business of added value, lack of competences and skills to develop innovative companies in the domain. The situation in Romania was identified by the analyses did by the Romanian Society of Bioengineering and Biotechnology and compared with other EU countries, members of the European Federation of Biotechnology. The project will develop learning curricula and contents to be delivered to target-group by blended learning in order to provide training in business enhancement in life sciences for sustainable development applications. Two products from these foreign partners will be transferred, by integrating them, but also by adapting to an economic sector of interest and by introducing modern blended learning systems, and by increasing the value with a new specific content dedicated to sustainable life sciences applications. The enterprise business in life sciences module will complementary treat the Intellectual Property issues. The impact will be on 3 levels: (1) short term: acknowledge the key competences and skills needed to develop business in sustainable development applications of life sciences and develop blended learning by testing the training on a representative selection of persons from the target group; (2) medium term: formation in the involved countries and at EU level of a general vision about the training in the field of interest as products and methodologies; (3) long term: at EU level introduction into educational and vocational systems of advanced and coherent learning tools to enhance the needed competences.

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Radu N. Chirvase A. A., Velea S., Babeanu N., Popa O., Steponaviciene R., Hastaran F. 2014, MODERN LEARNING SYSTEM AND IMPROVED CURRICULA FOR EDUCATION MANAGEMENT IN LIFE SCIENCES, TO PROMOTE BUSINESS ENHANCEMENT. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 116-119.

NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF WIND LOADS ON PV SOLAR PANELS MOUNTED ON FLAT-ROOFS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 1
Written by Elena DRAGOMIRESCU, Ya LIU

As a vast renewable energy resource, solar energy is currently one of the most widely used types of new energy. For collecting solar energy devices based on photovoltaic (PV) cells are installed in locations with optimum exposure to sunlight. Wind-induced load is a main concern; however detailed guidelines and design codes for wind loads on PV solar panels are very limited. Therefore measurements were performed on a PV solar panel installed on the Mann Parking Building of the University of Ottawa. The wind load calculation was performed in conformity with the ASCE7-05 (2005) and SEAOC (2013) design codes, and it was noticed that the roof wind zone, building edge and the parapet effect were the main parameters affecting the estimated wind load value on each PV panel. The maximum wind load of 1,208.0 N was obtained on the northwest corner of the PV solar panel arrays, and the minimum wind load of 806.0 N was obtained on the centre of PV solar panel arrays.

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Dragomirescu E., Liu Y. 2014, NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF WIND LOADS ON PV SOLAR PANELS MOUNTED ON FLAT-ROOFS. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 54-61.

ON-FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ASSESSMENT AND WELFARE IMPROVEMENT IN DAIRY CATTLE

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 1
Written by Christoph WINCKLER

Animal welfare is of multi-dimensional nature, and its assessment should be based on a variety of measures. Traditionally, farm animal welfare assessment has focused on ‚inputs’ such as resources and management practices provided to the animals. Especially during the last decade, however, the use of animal-based ‚outcome’ measures has been advocated since they are considered to directly reflect the animals’ state and experience. Considerable efforts have been made and are still being made to develop such mainly animal-based assessment schemes for different farm animal species (e.g. Welfare Quality®, Bristol Welfare Assurance Programme, AWIN). Comprehensive, scientifically sound (i.e. at least valid as judged by experts) assessment protocols are thus available. Potential applications include farm assurance, legislative and/or voluntary certification, use as a farm management tool or research with the different uses partially requiring different approaches. In the second part, this paper addresses selected concerns regarding dairy cattle welfare and provides approaches to welfare improvement: 1) Production-related diseases such as lameness are regarded the most important welfare problem in the dairy industry. Farm individual intervention strategies taking the major factors such as housing and management etc. into account have been shown to effectively reduce lameness prevalence. 2) Restrictions of movement and behaviour around resting. Access to pasture is typically considered positive for cattle welfare but becomes less common. Cows in zero-grazing production systems have to cope with more confined housing conditions in terms of space allowance, social stress, floor properties etc. Of crucial importance are the effects of barn design and management on standing and lying behaviour such as stocking rate, provision of bedding and dimensions and configuration. 3) Painful procedures such as disbudding of calves. Disbudding causes tissue damage and subsequent experiences of pain, which may be assessed using physiological and behavioural indicators. These effects should be alleviated as far as possible, preferably by a combination of sedation, local anaesthesia and anti-inflammatory treatment.

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Winckler C. 2014, ON-FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ASSESSMENT AND WELFARE IMPROVEMENT IN DAIRY CATTLE. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 163-168.

OPEN SOURCE WEB APPLICATIONS FOR SPATIAL DATA MANAGEMENT AND FOR WATER RESOURCE ANALYSIS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 1
Written by Michele BELLEZZA, Luca CASAGRANDE, Arnaldo PIERLEONI, Stefano CASADEI

Many problems of water resource management are strongly related to their spatial distribution and due to a use that is usually uncontrolled, such as water withdrawals. For these reasons, web procedures have been developed in order to manage spatial data of interest and to analyse information on water resources, so that this tool can be widely used and shared freely and easily by all stakeholders. A prototype of this instrument is the web tool "Water Resources Management and Evaluation" (WRME). The main features of this project can be summarized as follows: - is easy to use, both for the database like and the map-based consultation; - uses synthetic indicators simplifying the hydrological and hydraulic information; - integrates tools for the update and the exchange of data between different databases of different stakeholders; - integrates the possibility to implement and update, in a distributed manner over the basin and the drainage network, all constraints arising from the different legislations and management plans; - provides synthetic information on the sustainability of scenarios; - provides synthetic information on the sustainability of new water withdrawals; - software is open source, therefore economic resources can be invested on training and development. The methodology of this project can also be applied in other areas of sustainable management of environmental resources.

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Bellezza M., Casagrande L., Pierleoni A., Casadei S. 2014, OPEN SOURCE WEB APPLICATIONS FOR SPATIAL DATA MANAGEMENT AND FOR WATER RESOURCE ANALYSIS. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 25-30.

OUTCOMES OF VARIOUS TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS APPLIED TO THE APPLE INTENSIVE CULTURE SYSTEMS IN MOARA DOMNEASCA AREA

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 1
Written by Jeni Veronica ȚIU, Sorin Mihai CÎMPEANU, Valerica TUDOR, Adrian ASĂNICĂ

Irrigation with a drip system uses less water than sprinkler irrigation. The foliar fertilization is an important unconventional and unpolluting measure, meant to increase fruit crops through an ecological process suitable for sustenable development. Technological variants were studied using localized irrigation (b2) and irrigation associated with foliar fertilization (b2c2) on the behavior of three varieties of apple 'Romus 3'(a1), 'Generos'(a2) and 'Ionathan' (a3) (Malus domestica Borkh.), grafted on M9, with different periods of maturation, in terms of the South-East of Romania, where optimal conditions are encountered. From this paper, studies found that a version of localized irrigation technology is associated with foliar fertilization (b2c2) and had influence on the characteristics of existing trees, i.e. tree height and trunk section area (TSA) on the production of fruit but also on the quality of the fruit items (average weight of the fruit, soluble dry matter, acidity and firmness).

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Țiu J. V., Cîmpeanu S. M., Tudor V., Asănică A. 2014, OUTCOMES OF VARIOUS TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS APPLIED TO THE APPLE INTENSIVE CULTURE SYSTEMS IN MOARA DOMNEASCA AREA. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 149-155.

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL METHODS TO AVOID FRUIT CRACKING IN CHERRY

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 1
Written by Mekjell MELAND, Clive KAISER, John MARK CHRISTENSEN

Rain-induced fruit cracking in sweet cherries can cause heavy losses in yields and returns. Several advances in the use of different cultural practices, which reduce the incidence of fruit cracking have been made. These practices range from exclusion of water from the fruit surface during growth and maturation of the fruit, to reducing osmotic potential across the fruit skins during rainfall events, to coating the fruit with elastic hydrophobic rain exclusion biofilms. Physical exclusion of rainwater may also be achieved by covering the trees with protective plastic rain covers. Two systems have been researched in Norway; retractable plastic rain covers and multi-bay polyethylene “high tunnels”. The supporting framework of the former is built entirely of wood and overhead polyethylene curtains slide back and forth on three wires per row to open or close depending on the prevailing weather. Retractable covers must be drawn over the trees manually before rainfall events and is extremely labour intensive. The system is highly susceptible to heavy winds. High tunnels, which are accessible to tractors, are constructed of steel bows, attached to metal posts and covered with greenhouse–grade polyethylene. Tunnels may be fully ventilated on hot, humid days or completely closed for extending the growing season. The plastic covering is completely removed during winter. Cherries may be covered from bloom until harvest or only during the time when fruit are susceptible to cracking. A high density planting (1250 trees per ha) of ‘Sweetheart’/‘Colt’ in Norway grown in high tunnels yielded 9 kg per tree on average in the 4th leaf and 19 kg per tree on average in the 5th leaf. Fruit size measurements found that on average, more than half the fruit were larger than 32 mm in diameter by the 4th leaf. GA3 treatment at yellow straw colour delayed harvest by one week, and significantly improved fruit size and fruit firmness.But soil moisture management is critical inside the tunnels as excess soil moisture can induce significant percentages of fruit cracking even inside the tunnels. In the United States, Pacific Northwest, Parka (powered by SureSeal®), a novel biofilm comprised of palm oil and cellulose, patented by Oregon State University, resulted in 50% less fruit cracking on average, higher total soluble solids and increased retention force between the pedicel and fruit than untreated control fruit.

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Meland M., Kasier C., Mark Christensen J. 2014, PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL METHODS TO AVOID FRUIT CRACKING IN CHERRY. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 177-183.


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