A MODEL FOR THE OPTIMAL RISK MANAGEMENT OF FARM FIRMS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1
Written by Svend RASMUSSEN

Risk management is an integrated part of business or firm management and deals with the problem of how to avoid the risk of economic losses when the objective is to maximize expected profit. This paper will focus on the identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks in agriculture followed by a description of procedures for coordinated and economical application of resources to control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events. Besides identifying the major risk factors and tools for risk management in agricultural production, the paper will look critically into the current methods for risk management Risk management is typically based on numerical analysis and the concept of efficiency. None of the methods developed so far actually solve the basic question of how the individual manager should behave so as to optimise the balance between expected profit/income and risk. In the paper, we derive a criterion for optimal risk management in the sense that we derive the optimal combination of expected income and variance on return to capital on the efficient frontier.

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Rasmussen S., 2012, A MODEL FOR THE OPTIMAL RISK MANAGEMENT OF FARM FIRMS . AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1, ISSN-L 2285-5718, 18-24.

AGRICULTURE AND EUPHEMISTIC VIEW ON PHYSICAL HAZARDS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1
Written by Ramiro A. SOFRONIE

The paper deals with an inherited inadvertence that became anachronistic. When physical events like earthquakes, droughts, heavy rains, landslides, storms and/or volcanic eruptions occur in populated areas they are properly called hazardous events. Their probabilistic occurrence is thus emphasised. But hiding human involvement and responsibility in the consequences of those events under the euphemistic syntagme “natural hazards” is an impiety. Nowadays, due to population growth and human cumulated errors Planet’s balance is in danger. Urgent solutions for controlling the created situation are strongly expected. Agriculture plays a crucial role in restoring the harmony between nature’s basic components. It’s worth doing the best that conference’s slogan Agriculture for Life, Life for Agriculture to come true.

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Sofronie R. A., 2012, AGRICULTURE AND EUPHEMISTIC VIEW ON PHYSICAL HAZARDS . AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1, ISSN-L 2285-5718, 179-184.

ASSESSMENT OF THE OCNELE MARI SALT MINE EXPLOITATION IMPACTS ON THE VEGETATION COVERAGE USING MULTISPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING DATA

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1
Written by Violeta POENARU, Alexandru BADEA, Elena SAVIN

In Romania there are several inactive or abandoned mine sites which can create a significant impact on the environment, affecting the use of local surface and groundwater. The environmental impacts that can occur at an abandoned mine site can be divided into several categories, amongst which: metal contamination of ground surface water and sediments, air emission and deposition, erosion, physical impacts (slope failure, structural stability of tailings impoundments, ground subsidence, unsafe structure, mine openings and vegetation contamination). The Ocnele Mari salt mine is one of disused mines affected by subsidence phenomena as a result of pillars dissolution by uncontrolled leaching processes that led to the formation of a huge cavern of up 10 .5 ha on horizontal direction and its volume of 2.5 million m3 of brine. The land deformation (subsidence and landslide) phenomenon influences vegetation coverage changes. The object of the present study is to investigate the temporal changes of vegetation caused by salt exploitation using multispectral remote sensing data (Landsat 5, Landsat 7, ASTER and MODIS). We elaborated maps for the vegetation indices: normalized difference vegetation index - NDVI, leaf area specific index – SLAVI, normalized difference water index - NDWI - and thermal index. The change detection technique in vectorial format is applied on NDVI data in order to determine the areas affected by land degradation, with direct effects on vegetation coverage. Thus, an analysis of vegetation index NDVI proves the vegetation degradation in Field II of probes of the mining area, especially in the area of the 360-366 probes, with an area of 146700 m2. For the Field I of probes, sample 472, a decrease of 19 800 m2 of vegetation was noticed, while the third field, samples 431-433, decrease was determined to 30 600 m2. The results confirmed feasibility of using remote sensing technique to assess the vegetation growth status in the salt mining area.

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Poenaru V., Badea A., Savin E., 2012, ASSESSMENT OF THE OCNELE MARI SALT MINE EXPLOITATION IMPACTS ON THE VEGETATION COVERAGE USING MULTISPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING DATA . AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1, ISSN-L 2285-5718, 169-178.

BIOTA OF DEGRADED SOILS AND METHODS FOR ITS RESTORATION

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1
Written by Irina SENICOVSCAIA

In the present paper we discuss different aspects of the soil biota functioning in the current farming system of the Republic of Moldova. The natural stability of the biota in virgin, fallow and arable soils has been estimated, the assessment system of the sustainability of invertebrates and microorganisms of soils to the anthropogenic impacts has been developed. The zones of homeostasis have been determined and criteria of the resistance of soil biota standards have been elaborated. The modifications of the biological properties of soils have been established, as a result of their long-term arable use and the application of high doses of mineral fertilizers. More information about the biological soil degradation has been acquired, as a result of dehumification processes and aggregates destroying the anthropogenic nature. The system of fertilizers application on soils with a normal profile has been substantiated from the biological point of view. The method of green manure application has been applied in order to restore the biota of degraded soils and to improve soil quality and the environment.

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Senicovscaia I., 2012, BIOTA OF DEGRADED SOILS AND METHODS FOR ITS RESTORATION . AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1, ISSN-L 2285-5718, 78-83.

DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL MARKETING STRATEGIES FOR AGRARIAN COMPANIES IN SERBIA

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1
Written by Branko MIHAILOVIC, Drago CVIJANOVIC, Vesna PARAUSIC

The aim of this paper is to inform the employees of the agrarian sector in Serbia about the key elements necessary for the effective international marketing activities of the company. Namely, the previous period was dominated by a production orientation which had not respect for market requirements. Agricultural enterprises in Serbia lost the brand and traditional markets. A way out of crisis requires a constitution of market-oriented enterprises, implying a number of structural changes directed toward the improvement of business efficiency and adjustment to market requirements. Namely, the current volume and structure of agricultural production, its high extensiveness and fluctuation and low productivity, together with the inefficient organization of production and payment operations, and the inefficient strategies of all types of agriculture enterprises which insufficiently take market signals into account – are the basic factors that prevent domestic producers from becoming competitive in food and agriculture products. The paper shows that it is necessary to reexamine the existing and develop new business and international marketing strategies of the agricultural producers, based not only on developing the producers' capacities but also on the awareness of the consumer, new technologies, market approaches and other contemporary market principles. In doing so, the awareness of market approaches – the constant and intensive market changes – is the first and basic supposition on which it would be wise to base new strategies that are different from the competitors’ in innovation, technology and quality. New strategies, conditionally, must also include the provision of critical money supply, as well as stimulating the agrarian policy, which enables us to keep up with the up-to-date market, technological and marketing trends.

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Mihailovic B., Cvijanovic D., Parausic V., 2012, DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL MARKETING STRATEGIES FOR AGRARIAN COMPANIES IN SERBIA . AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1, ISSN-L 2285-5718, 195-201.

DISTRIBUTION OF NITROGEN FROM SOIL AND FROM FERTILIZER INTO THE WINTER WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) PLANT AT GRAIN MATURITY

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1
Written by Nadia BOULELOUAH, Jean Pierre DESTAIN, Bernard BODSON, André FALISSE

In this experiment, the distribution within the plant of nitrogen originating from fertilizer and from soil was followed at six periods between anthesis and grain maturity. Fertilizer rate of 180 kg N.ha-1 was applied following two splitting schedules T2 (1/3-1/3-1/3) and T5 (0-1/3-2/3) at GS25, GS30 and GS37 resp. and compared to unfertilized control T1. Aerial parts of the plant were divided into several compartments i.e. S1 (organs under the fore-last node), S2 (fore-last node and stem portion), S3 (last node and stem), L2 (fore-last leaf), L3 (flag leaf), EC (ear chaff) and EG (grain). -15N labelled NH4N03 was used to determine the recovery of nitrogen applications, and the part of fertilizer and soil nitrogen in each plant compartment. At maturity, fertilizer N recovery varied significantly in the whole plant and ranged from 68.14 to 78.62 % and in grain from 55.91 (± 5.28) % to 69.11 (± 5.07) % for T2 and T5 respectively. Total amounts of N in the whole plant (11.3; 26.4 and 26.4 g N.m-2 for T1, T2 and T5 respectively) were distributed in S1 (1.1; 1.9 and 1.0 g N.m-2), in S2 (0.2; 0.3 and 0.2 g N.m-2), in S3 (0.23; 0.52 and 0.41 g N.m-2), in L2 (0.18; 0.47 and 0.38 g N.m-2), in L3 (0.26; 0.67 and 0.61g N.m-2), in EC (0.57; 1.34 and 1.17 g N.m-2), and in EG (8.8; 21.2 and 22.6 g N.m-2). Split nitrogen application affected the recovery of fertilizer nitrogen (FNR). By suppressing the first split application (GS25) and increasing the latest (GS37), the splitting schedule T5 (0-1/3-2/3) exhibited the highest total and grain recoveries of fertilizer nitrogen.

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Boulelouah N, Destain J. P., Bodson B., Falisse A., 2012, DISTRIBUTION OF NITROGEN FROM SOIL AND FROM FERTILIZER INTO THE WINTER WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) PLANT AT GRAIN MATURITY . AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1, ISSN-L 2285-5718, 63-67.

EFFECT OF CRUDE CULTURE FILTRATES OF THE PATHOGENIC FUNGUS PHOMA MEDICAGINIS ON IN VITRO CULTURES OF PEA

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1
Written by Georgina KOSTURKOVA, Rositsa RODEVA, Krasimira TASHEVA, Margarita DIMITROVA, Dimitar DIMANOV

Biotic stress is one of the major causes for considerable yield loses and limits in plant performance. To cope with this problem, multidisciplinary approach is applied and research is carried out at several levels of organization of the living organisms. The large scale studies are due to the fact that resistance is a complex of genetic, physiological, biochemical and other mechanisms. It includes plant-pathogen interactions demonstrated on organism, cellular and molecular level. Biotechnology affords an opportunity for application of alternative methods to investigate stress response and to select for higher tolerance. Essential prerequisites for this kind of work are the in vitro culture system and a stress factor which is applicable in vitro and simulates the natural stress factor on cellular or tissue level. In this respect culture filtrates from pathogenic fungus can be used as a selective factor in plant cell in vitro cultures. The objectives of the study were to define the appropriate culture filtrates from a pathogenic fungus which can be used for in vitro modeling of biotic stress using plant tissue cultures. Long-term organogenic pea cultures and crude culture filtrates from the virulent isolate of the pathogenic fungus Phoma medicaginis var. Pinodella causing ascochytosis disease were used. The negative effects of crude culture filtrates obtained at different stages of fungus growth were studied recording changes in pea bud and shoot induction and development. The virulence of the crude culture filtrate was tested after being subjected to cold or hot sterilization. The culture filtrate after the 5th day of fungus suspension initiation demonstrated suppression of the pea organogenesis. The negative effect is strongest on the 9th day of fungus cultivation. The cold sterilization of the fungus filtrate by Millipore filter with 0.2 μ membrane pores is the most effective and reliable. However, it is more difficult compared to autoclaving which is reliable, too, but decreases culture filtrate activity.

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Kosturkova G., Rodeva R., Tasheva K., Dimitrova M., Dimanov D., 2012, EFFECT OF CRUDE CULTURE FILTRATES OF THE PATHOGENIC FUNGUS PHOMA MEDICAGINIS ON IN VITRO CULTURES OF PEA . AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1, ISSN-L 2285-5718, 126-131.

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SELECTION CRITERIA AND CROSSBREEDING ON SIRE HETEROSIS IN PIGS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1
Written by Vitomir VIDOVIĆ, Desanka PUNOŠ, Dragomir LUKAČ, Milanko STUPAR

Research on sire heterosis was performed in parallel on 12 boars of pure breed and 12 F1 generations of fertile and terminal breeds of pigs: F1 D×P; F1 P×D than F1 Y×L; F1 L×Y. The following traits were analyzed: age at first and second jump fertility; libido; the volume, concentration and progressive motion of spermatozoa; and semen longevity. All hybrid boars showed superiority in libido in relation to the pure boars. Thus, the crossing and the production of synthetic boar was justified. In such situations, it is always important that their progeny, animals for fattening, were uniform in production traits at the end of fattening as part of special tests and selection of pure breed. The time of maturity and readiness of the boars did not show significant differences. It was not the sire heterosis for these traits. In this example, the semen volume was found insire heterosis, greater in the white compared to the coloured breeds. Proportional to the volume of semen and number of doses showed the same trend, with the number of spermatozoa from 3 billion in a dose was standardized for all animals tested. The progressive motion of semen was very similar and there was no statistical difference, as well as longevity. In conclusion, sire heterosis was manifested of the hybrid boars in the following traits: libido, amount the semen and number of doses per ejaculate that directly affect on increasing intensity of selection and genetic progress. The heterosis effect was not found for other traits.

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Vidović V., Punoš D., Lukač D., Stupar M., 2012, EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SELECTION CRITERIA AND CROSSBREEDING ON SIRE HETEROSIS IN PIGS . AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1, ISSN-L 2285-5718, 152-156.

EFFECT OF IRRADIATION AND HEAT TREATMENTS ON THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF SIWI DATE FRUIT (PHOENIS DACTYLIFERA L.)

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1
Written by  Khaled SELIM, Mohamed ABDEL-BARY, Osama ISMAAEL

The present work was carried out to improve the quality and the shelf-life of Siwi date fruit during storage time using irradiation and heat treatments, and investigate the effect of these treatments on the physical and chemical properties of the Siwi date fruit. Results showed that control dates samples (without treatments) contained 18.74% moisture, 1.72% crude protein, 1.21% fat, 2.62% crude fiber and 2.05% ash while in the irradiated date samples, the average percent contents were 17.65 moisture, 1.65 crued protein, 1.19 fats, 2.58 fibers and 1.97% ash. On the other hand, the results showed that the date fruit treated with heat had 19.48% moisture, 1.61% protein, 1.140% fat, 2.55% fiber and 1.99% ash. The results indicated that the moisture content of the control date samples decreased from 18.74 to 11.35% over a 9-month of storage while it decreased from 19.48 to 12.68% and from 17.65 to 11.82 over 9-months of storage for the heat treatment and irradiated samples, respectively. The results also showed that, during the storage period (9-months), the protein contents decreased from 1.72 to 0.80% for control; from 1.61 to 0.782% for heat treated samples and from 1. 65 to 0.80% for irradiated samples. In our study, all essential and non-essential amino acids increased sharply after the heat and irradiation treatments, compared with the control samples. The most affected amino acid appeared to be Aspartic acid, Glutamic acid, Serine and Tyrosine. The results demonstrated that the heat treatment samples had lower Valine content than the control and the irradiated sample. These results suggest that irradiation of Siwi date fruit at doses up to 1kGy could be used as alternative method for improving fruit quality, as well as prolonging the marketable period of date fruit.

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Selim K., Abdel-Bary M., Ismaael O., 2012, EFFECT OF IRRADIATION AND HEAT TREATMENTS ON THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF SIWI DATE FRUIT (PHOENIS DACTYLIFERA L.) . AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1, ISSN-L 2285-5718, 103-111.

ENCAPSULATION: PROMISING TECHNOLOGY FOR NURSERIES AND PLANT TISSUE LABORATORIES

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1
Written by Alvaro STANDARDI

The concept of encapsulation was firstly announced in 1978 by Murashige who assumed the use of this technology to protect “vitro-derived” somatic embryos during transport and manipulation in nurseries and farms, limiting the synthetic seed manufacture to the exclusive use of somatic embryos. At this moment, after more than 30 years of intensive research, the concept of encapsulation permits to consider that any meristematic plant tissue (obtained in vivo or in vitro) can be enclosed in a protective and nutritive matrix as long as it maintains the ability to convert into a plantlet under in vitro or in vivo environmental conditions (synthetic seed) or to evolve in shoots in a laboratory of micropropagation (capsula), also after transport and/or storage. Usually, the encapsulation procedure adopted to obtain synthetic seed or capsula includes three steps: coating, complexation and rinsing. After these steps, plant tissue portions of 3-4 mm result, enclosed in a gelling matrix which assures protection from dehydration and mechanical damages. When unipolar plant explants, as buds or microcuttings, were employed to produce synthetic seed, inductive treatment has to be applied in order to induce root emission after sowing, especially when in the encapsulation plant tissues of species with low rooting potential were involved. These treatments increase the steps to produce synthetic seed, making a large scale diffusion of the technology economically difficult for some agricultural crops. From this point of view, intense research is in progress in some laboratories, in order to look for mechanical and/or automation application, especially in the steps that require intensive manual labor. Although the encapsulation technology at the moment presents some open questions that have to be solved, interesting perspectives for its future commercial use are open because the two products of this innovative technology (capsula and synthetic seed) are useful for: the effective channel for diffusion of new plant genotypes; direct sowing of synthetic in field, greenhouse or growth chamber; plant material storage; biodiversity conservation; exchange of in vitro plant material between laboratories and nurseries in different countries.

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Standardi A., 2012, ENCAPSULATION: PROMISING TECHNOLOGY FOR NURSERIES AND PLANT TISSUE LABORATORIES . AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1, ISSN-L 2285-5718, 48-54.


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