STUDIES REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE (CA) SYSTEM USE ON GROWTH, SOIL FERTILITY CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE STABILIZATION OF WHEAT PRODUCTION IN THE BURNAZ PLAIN - ROMANIA

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1
Written by Mihai BERCA

In the researched area, located on the terrace of southwestern Alexandria, soil fertility (evaluated by such indicators as humus content, biological activity of the soil, ecological index, production level) showed that the amount of carbon and nitrogen in the soil decreased by two times in the last 100 years, especially due to a defective management of soil tillage and plant nutrition. In order to restore soil balance and to improve the relations between plants and soil, between 2004 and 2011, intensive and continuous research was carried out on the chernozem of the Burnaz Plain, aiming at: the use of a tillage conservation system, crop rotation with ameliorative plants, residual biomass (4-5 tonnes/ha) and several soil bioactivators in the recovery of the physical, biological and ecological parameters, as well as fertility and grain production increase. Thus, flows were recovered on soil profile, the quantity of Humus C in soil increased by 1.9 times, the biological activity of soil increased by 2-2.5 times, the ecological index by 1.8 times, the soil capacity to retain, preserve and dispose the water to the plants grew three times and also the production level of premium high quality grains increased by about 2 times.

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Berca M, 2012, STUDIES REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE (CA) SYSTEM USE ON GROWTH, SOIL FERTILITY CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE STABILIZATION OF WHEAT PRODUCTION IN THE BURNAZ PLAIN - ROMANIA . AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1, ISSN-L 2285-5718, 55-62.

THE ECOPHYSIOLOGY OF CARBON IN FRUIT TREES: A DRIVER OF PRODUCTIVITY, A TOOL TO FACE CLIMATE CHANGE, A PRODUCER OF INNOVATION THAT CAN BECOME TOMORROW'S GROWING PARADIGM

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1
Written by Luca CORELLI GRAPPADELLI, Brunella MORANDI

The control of tree performance by exploiting the interactions of tree and environment is among the goals of ecophysiology. This discipline has accompanied genetic improvement of tree crops over the last half century, and has provided the scientific bases of orchard efficiency and productivity. High density plantings have their roots in the knowledge of the interactions between trees and incoming radiation. Pruning, thinning, water management and other cultural practices are based on similar knowledge. The continuing efforts in elucidating the relationships between environment and trees/tree parts are now focusing on organs such as the fruit, which is becoming an integrator of the plant’s well being: if fruit grow as expected (when measured precisely) they reveal/confirm a healthy status and proper management of the tree. Current knowledge on tree water relations, fruit development, and their determinants at the vascular level are paving the way for future innovation in the management of irrigation, that will allow to better tailor water restitution to the tree needs on a daily, instead of a seasonal, scale. Similarly, knowledge of the complex relationships between incoming light and tree performance promises to allow to maintain orchard productivity and quality while consuming less water. The role ecophysiology can play to offset climate change stems, along with the benefits deriving by a smarter use of renewable resources leading to a smaller water print and energy uptake, also from the capacity that orchards have to sequester Carbon. There is a growing body of knowledge that is amenable to innovation transfer and technological uptake, which will likely form the backbone of precision fruit growing, which will in turn allow to gauge and control in real time the development of the crop, giving the grower the possibility to change his/her management according to the actual orchard needs.

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Corelli Grappadelli L., Morandi B., 2012, THE ECOPHYSIOLOGY OF CARBON IN FRUIT TREES: A DRIVER OF PRODUCTIVITY, A TOOL TO FACE CLIMATE CHANGE, A PRODUCER OF INNOVATION THAT CAN BECOME TOMORROW'S GROWING PARADIGM . AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1, ISSN-L 2285-5718, 39-47.

THE ESENTIAL ROLE OF CROP ROTATION AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION IN WHEAT AND MAIZE IN THE SUSTENABLE AGRICULTURE SYSTEM OF REDDISH PRELUVOSOIL

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1
Written by Costică CIONTU, Dumitru-Ilie SĂNDOIU, Aurelian PENESCU, Mihai GÂDEA, Tudor ȘCHIOPU, Mihaela OBRIȘCĂ, Liviu DINCĂ

Research presents the results of the study object Agrotechnics performed between 1996 and 2010 on the reddish preluvosoil crop rotation field of Moara Domnească, the Romanian Plain, belonging to the Faculty of Agriculture, USAMV – Bucharest. The experiment was bifactorial, organised according to the split method, in four replications, with factor A being the rotation and factor B – fertilization with mineral nitrogen. Factor A – rotation –contained six rotations with the following graduations: a1 – wheat monoculture, a2 – maize monoculture, a3 –two-year rotation: 1. wheat, 2. maize, a4 –three-year rotation: 1. soybean, 2. wheat, 3. maize, a5 –four-year rotation: 1. peas, 2. wheat, 3. sugar beat, 4. maize, a6 – 1. sunflower, 2. wheat, 3. maize, 4. wheat/alfalfa. Factor B – fertilizing with mineral nitrogen, had the following graduations: b1 – unfertilised, b2 – N50, b3 - N100, b4 – N150. The following factors influencing the yield were discussed: the associated influence of crop rotation and fertilization with mineral nitrogen; the influence of the organic material amount in the soil, weed biomass, the content and the quantity of raw protein in wheat and maize. Under the influence of crop rotation, weeding reduction was achieved both in wheat and maize. The association of rotation with fertilization determined an increase in organic biomass, with an amplified action of the factors in maize. In wheat, the highest production was achieved in the three-year and four-year crop rotations, while in maize the maximum yield was achieved in the three-year crop rotation, four-year crop rotation and four-year crop rotation with jumping plot rotation after wheat.

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Ciontu C., Săndoiu D.-I., Penescu A., Gâdea M., Șchiopu T., Obrișcă M., Dincă L., 2012, THE ESENTIAL ROLE OF CROP ROTATION AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION IN WHEAT AND MAIZE IN THE SUSTENABLE AGRICULTURE SYSTEM OF REDDISH PRELUVOSOIL . AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1, ISSN-L 2285-5718, 68-77.

THE POTENTIAL OF CROSS RESISTANCE BETWEEN MONO TRAIT AND STACKED GENE TRANSGENIC EVENTS - A CASE STUDY

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1
Written by Sajjad A. MUHAMMAD

The first-generation transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), Bollgard, which contains a single toxin protein gene cry1Ac from Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki Berliner, was approved by the National Biosafety Committee (NBC) for commercial growing in Pakistan in 2011 and the yield enhancement is promising, with an increase in cotton bales up to 150 million- the record productivity of the cotton sector. However, the planting of illegal Bt cotton varieties in farmers fields could be traced as back as in 2003. The wide spread cultivation of these mixed character (varying expression of Bt toxin) varieties has threatened the potential evolution of resistance in target insects. After two years of field trials for agronomic and ecological assessment, the commercialization of another GM event, MON89034xNK603 is imminent. The purpose is to provide an effective control of lepidopteran insect pests in maize crop to reduce a reliance on chemical pest control as well as a flexible, environment friendly utilization of glyphosate based weedicides. This review presents a situation analysis for the need of this technology in Pakistan. Aspects regarding the previous adoption of GM cotton are discussed to pre-determine the prospects and potential risk of cross resistance between MON531 and MON 89034. It is necessary because partial control of lepidopteran insects especially Helicoverpa spp. (Helicoverpa armigera, Helicoverpa zea), Pectinophora gossypiella, Spodoptera littoralis, Spodoptera exigua, Earias vittella, Earias insulana without structured refuges for the Bt crop provides a basis for an increase in frequency of resistant alleles.

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Muhammad S. A., 2012, THE POTENTIAL OF CROSS RESISTANCE BETWEEN MONO TRAIT AND STACKED GENE TRANSGENIC EVENTS - A CASE STUDY . AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1, ISSN-L 2285-5718, 139-146.

THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN SUSTAINABLE LOCAL DEVELOPMENT ON EXAMPLE OF ESTABLISHING MICROFINANCE IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1
Written by Ion CERTAN

Given that over 80% of the EU territory is represented by rural areas inhabited by over one quarter of the EU population, the Agenda 2000 of the European Commission adopted in June 1997 includes „coherent policies of sustainable rural development”. Since the Republic of Moldova has regained its independence, it has been eager to occupy its own place among the democratic nations of the world and currently nourishes hopes to build a competitive economy. This paper will consider the ways, components, implications of the export system, preceded by a very brief description of the specifics of the Republic of Moldova. The case of the microfinance system will be used for a better exemplification, especially the part focusing on rural areas, analyzed from the quantitative and qualitative points of view.

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Certan I., 2012, THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN SUSTAINABLE LOCAL DEVELOPMENT ON EXAMPLE OF ESTABLISHING MICROFINANCE IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA . AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1, ISSN-L 2285-5718, 185-194.

THE ROMANIAN EXTERNAL TRADE IN SUGAR AND CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1
Written by Toma Adrian DINU, Georgiana Armenița ARGHIROIU, Elena STOIAN, Oana Daniela DARIE, George PĂTRAȘCU

Trade flows in agricultural products are subject to continuous dynamic. Importers will buy from the markets where products arrive at the best price for the market of destination, and exporters will focus on the markets where the product price is more advantageous. Romania is a net importer of sugar, and the deficit has increased more than three times, in terms of value, between 2002 and 2004. This paper analyzes the evolution of trade flows with sugar and sugar products of Romania, and test their degree of correlation with domestic production, the average wage and exchange rate: Lei/$.

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Dinu T. A., Arghiroiu G. A., Stoian E., Darie O. D., Pătrașcu G., 2012, THE ROMANIAN EXTERNAL TRADE IN SUGAR AND CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS . AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1, ISSN-L 2285-5718, 202-208.

TOWARDS AGROBACTERIUM – MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF THE ENDANGERED MEDICINAL PLANT GOLDEN ROOT

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1
Written by Krasimira TASHEVA, Georgina KOSTURKOVA

Medicinal plants preparations are still the most popular life saving remedies for a larger part of the world population. However, exhaustion of natural resources demands new approaches in utilization and protection of these species. Biotechnology may be a powerful tool for enhancing the productivity of novel secondary metabolites. In recent years Agrobacterium mediated plant transformation, due to its simplicity and efficiency, has become quite used method for the introduction of foreign genes into plant cells followed by regeneration of genetically improved plants. The approach was successful in a number of technical and food crops but it is still limited in medicinal plants. One of the most appropriate methods for medicinal plants engineering is genetic transformation leading to increased synthesis of biological active substances in root cultures or in regenerated plantlets. Rhodiola rosea is a medicinal plant with limited area of distribution. Roots and rhizomes contain biological active substances used in prevention and treatment of socially important diseases. This article illustrates the possibilities of biotechnology for regeneration of Golden root and for genetic transformation aiming at stimulation of secondary metabolite production in vitro. Efficient system for propagation in vitro was developed using leaf nodes explants and was used for the genetic transformation experiments. Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC 15834 was used for hairy roots induction. Various factors (like density of bacterial suspension, co-cultivation time duration, concentration of the selective antibiotic) with impact on the efficiency of the transformation procedures were studied. Three transformation methods were compared: (i) spilling drops of bacterial suspension on the explants; (ii) injuring explants and dipping them into the bacterial suspension; (iii) injecting plantlets. Favorable and frustrating conditions were observed and discussed.

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Tasheva K., Kosturkova G., 2012, TOWARDS AGROBACTERIUM – MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF THE ENDANGERED MEDICINAL PLANT GOLDEN ROOT . AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1, ISSN-L 2285-5718, 132-138.

WINTER SURVIVAL OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN SOIL

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1
Written by Gino NACLERIO, Vincenzo ALLOCCA, Antonio BUCCI, Giovanni CAPOBIANCO, Francesco FIORILLO, Fulvio CELICO

The aim of this study was to evaluate, at site scale, the influence of freezing and freeze/thaw cycles on the survival of fecal coliforms and fecal enterococci in soil, in a climate change perspective. Viable cells of both fecal indicators were counted in ten different soil profiles and at different depths, before and after a winter season. Before the winter period and during grazing, viable cells of fecal coliforms and fecal enterococci were detected only in the first 10 cm below ground, while, after the winter period and before the new seasonal grazing, a lower number of viable cells of both fecal indicators was detected only in some of the soil profiles, and within the first 5 cm. Thus, a significant decrease in viable cells was observed in all soil profiles, due to cold shock, freezing, prolonged exposure to subzero temperatures, and alternating freezing and thawing periods, even though this decrease was not uniform at site scale. Taking into consideration the results of specific investigations, we hypothesised that the non-uniform spatial distribution of grass roots within the studied soil ccould play an important role in influencing this phenomenon, while several abiotic factors, such as organic matter, grain size and specific weight of particles, total porosity, and relative density, did not play any significant role. In a climate change perspective, taking into account also the local trend in air temperature, a different distribution of microbial pollution over time is expected in spring waters, and a higher risk of transmission of infections is expected throughout the year. The progressive increase in air temperature, with emphasis on the minimum one, will cause a progressive decrease in freezing and freeze/thawing at higher altitudes, therefore minimising cold shocks on microbial cells, and causing spring water pollution also during winter, differently from the actual observations.

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Naclerio G., Allocca V., Bucci A., Capobianco G., Fiorillo F., Celico F., 2012, WINTER SURVIVAL OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN SOIL . AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol 1, Issue 1, ISSN-L 2285-5718, 165-168.


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