Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 1
Written by Hristo STOYANOV
The main purpose of breeding programs is to obtain high yields of common winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Development of new lines and varieties resistant to economically important diseases related to the yield, is associated with proper selection of the initial breeding material. Most of the phylogenetic species closest to bread wheat, such as representatives of the genus Aegilops, possess valuable genes for biotic stress resistance. To establish appropriate accessions which could be involved in the hybridization and breeding programs of bread wheat, 32 accessions of the genus Aegilops (10 of Aegilops cylindrica, 12 of Aegilops tauschii, 6 of Aegilops ventricosa, one of the species Aegilops ovata, Aegilops neglecta and Aegilops speltoides) were observed, as regards their resistance to the pathogens of powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis), brown rust (Puccinia recondita) and septoria leaf blight (Septoria tritici). The observation was conducted under field conditions in the ear formation stage. All studied accessions were completely resistant to the pathogen of septoria leaf blight (Septoria tritici). All accessions of Aegilops cylindrica, 3 of Aegilops tauschii and 2 of Aegilops ventricosa were susceptible to powdery mildew. Accessions of Aegilops cylindrica and also 8 accessions of Aegilops tauschii and 3 accessions of Aegilops ventricosa are susceptible to brown rust. Accessions of Aegilops ovata, Aegilops neglecta and Aegilops speltoides are completely resistant to the three pathogens. With the highest complex resistance are accessions AE192, AE1609 and AE20 compared to other accessions of Aegilops tauschii and Aegilops ventricosa. The combination of high complex resistance to diseases, and a large phylogenetic proximity with genus Triticum, makes Aegilops tauschii and Aegilops ventricosa valuable sources of genes for resistance which could be successfully transferred into different wheat species.