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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 9, Number 1
Written by Raisa VOZHEHOVA, Vira BOROVYK, Vira KONOVALOVA, Serhii KOKOVIKHIN, Iryna BILIAIEVA, Pavlo LYKHOVYD, Olena PILIARSKA, Iryna BIDNYNA

The goal of the study was to determine drought tolerance of varieties of oil-seed flax and to improve its cultivation technology through the optimization of mineral nutrition in dependence on soil humidification with connection to the changes of climate in the South of Ukraine. To achieve the goal we performed three-year field experiment with the crop in regard to the design of the study, and investigated such factors as variety (Evryka, Orfei, Vira), mineral nutrition background (N0P0, N45P60, N60P60, N90P60), soil humidification conditions (irrigation, rain-fed). The maximum yields were provided by the variety Evryka (2.36 t ha-1) in the irrigated conditions, and the variety Vira (1.47 t ha-1) in the nonirriga edconditions at the application of N90P60. The best yield of oil was provided by the variety Vira (0.97 t ha-1 and 0.57 t ha-1 with the application of N60P60 in the irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, respectively). The main indices of drought tolerance, namely, mean productivity (MP) - 1.30, yield stability index (YSI) - 0.55, yielding index (YI) - 106, stress tolerance index (STI) - 0.47, revealed that the variety Vira was the best one among the studied varieties of oilseed flax. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed general tendency to the increase in oil-seed yield by 6.431 kg with the increase of irrigation rate by every 1 mm; by 4.548 kg per every 1 kg ha-1 of Nitrogen fertilizers; by 1.228 kg per every 1 kg ha-1 of Phosphorus fertilizers, respectively.

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 9, Number 1
Written by Adrian Ștefan DUMITRU, Gabriela CHIOVEANU, Gheorghe DOBRE, Mariana IONIŢĂ, Ioan Liviu MITREA

Bees and bee technologies are highly depending on the environmental factors. The seasonal dynamics of the bee colony are influenced by the both, bee technologies and quality and quantity of the nectaro-pollenifer sources. It is known that the impact of losses through bee mortality and colony unification (26.09%) due to the evolution of nosemosis are almost equal with the losses considered normal for the winter period, respectively of maximum 30%. The present study is based on observations carried out on the evolution of nosemosis during of three consecutive years (September, 2016 - March, 2019) in a stationary apiary in Romania. Investigations for the presence of Nosema spores in both living and dead bees were performed. Additionally, the presence of Nosema spores in honey, inside of the nests, before and after extraction was determined. The evolution and involution of the bee colonies were monitored according to the level of Nosema infection, by laboratory analyses on dead bees, especially during the first period of winter. The results clearly emphasized that, due to the presence of Nosema spores in the hive, in order to reduce the infectious pressure, it is imposing that in the spring the frames on which the bees have wintered to be reformed, even though they still have food resources (honey and bee-bread). Additionally, the breeding of bee colonies is recommended to be performed using only colony without the frames with food or frames from which hatched the brood, in order to avoid infection of the new colony.

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 9, Number 1
Written by Roxana PASZTOR, Maria BĂLA, Florin SALA

The study evaluated the quality of flowers in nine cultivars of Hyacinthus orientalis L. according to planting time and forcing period. Biological material was represented by nine Hyacinth cultivars: ʻCarnegieʼ (Car), ʻBlue Jacketʼ (B J), ʻBlue Starʼ (B S), ʻChina Pinkʼ (C P), ʻFondanteʼ (Fon), ʻGipsy Queenʼ (G Q), ʻPink Pearlʼ (P P), ʻRembrandtʼ (Rem), ʻMiss Saigonʼ (M S). A mixture of leaf soil and sand represented the growth substrate. The planting was done on three different calendar dates: November 10 (P I), November 24 (P II), and December 12 (P III) 2018, respectively. Forcing period (FP: FP I, FP II, FP III), flower stem length (FS: FS I, FS II, FS III) and flowering duration (FD: FD I, FD II, FD III) were evaluated. ʻBlue Jacketʼ (B J) cultivar showed the highest values for flower stem (FS), with statistically assured differences for LSD 0.01% (FS I and FS II) and for LSD 5% (FS III), respectively. Differences statistically ensured for LSD5% were also recorded in ʻCarnegieʼ (Car), ʻFondanteʼ (Fon) cultivars (FS I and FS II), and in ʻGipsy Queenʼ (G Q) cultivar (FS I, FS II and FS III), respectively. The variation of the FS parameter in relation to FP, was described by a polynomial equation of degree 3 under conditions of R2=0.839, p=0.045 for FP I, and by a polynomial equation of degree 2 under conditions of R2=0.923, p=0.0016 for FP II. The flowering duration (FD) according to the forcing period (FP) was described by a polynomial equations of degree 2, under conditions of R2=0.873, p=0.0057 for FP I, and in conditions of R2 = 0.621, p=0.085 for FP II, respectively. PCA explained 58.498% of variance for PC1 and 30.622% of variance for PC2, in relation to the forcing period (FP); explained 58.052% of variance for PCI, and 34.78% of variance for PC2 in relation to flowering duration (FD), and explained 93.882% of variance for PC1 and 4.1988% of variance for PC2, respectively, in relation to flower stem (FS). Cluster analysis (two way) facilitated the grouping of the cultivars based on affinity in relation to FP, FD and FS, under statistical safety conditions (Coph. corr = 0.849).

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 9, Number 1
Written by Galina BALASHOVA, Raisa VOZHEGOVA, Yuriy LAVRYNENKO, Olesya YUZYUK, Sergey YUZYUK, Borys KOTOV

The article presents experimental data on yield, yield structure and quality of seed potatoes of the varieties Skarbnitsa, Levada and Yavіr, depending on fertilizer and treatment with growth regulators Emistim S, Regoplant and Stimpo. On average, over three years of research, the enrichment of N45P45K45 and N90P90K90 increased the yield on 5.45 and 7.09 t ha-1 (37 and 48%). With background nutrition N45P45K45, growth regulators increased yields from 3.6% to 21.7%, depending on the variety and regulator. Fertilizers and growth regulators increased the dry matter content in tubers on 0.8 and 1.1%, starch - on 0.4 and 0.9%. Due to the use of fertilizers, the content of vitamin C decreased on 3.9 and 7.4%, nitrates increased on 30.1 and 60.4%. The maximum productivity of the early variety Skarbnitsa and medium early Levada was formed with the combined use of mineral fertilizers in a dose of N45P45K45 with the Regoplant growth regulator treatment - 21.85 and 22.12 t ha-1. When growing a mid-season variety Yavir, there was a need to use a dose of N90P90K90 fertilizers without growth regulator treatment, the yield was 22,65 t ha-1.

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 9, Number 1
Written by Iurii SKLIAR, Viktoriia SKLIAR, Anna KLYMENKO, Maryna SHERSTIUK, Inna ZUBTSOVA

Nymphaea candida J. et C. Presl. is a relict species which is a typical representative of an ecological group of attached aquatic higher plants with floating leaves. The conducted research was meant to evaluate the indicators that characterize the Nymphaea candida growth in different conditions of the Desna River basin and to find out the influence of the leading ecological-cenotic factors on them. Based on the analysis of 12 dynamic metric morphological parameters values and five dynamic allometric values, the information on Nymphaea candida plant growth rate in six communities is provided. The influence on the growth of such environmental factors such as the phytocoenoses Total plant cover, water column, its transparency andnature of bottom sediments was evaluated. The water colum and phytocoenoses overall projective coverage showed statistically significant effects, with a force of 54.4-99.0% and 23.6- 90.0%, respectively, on all dynamic morphoparameters of Nymphaea candida plants. The bottom sediments did not show a statistically significant effect on only one morphoparameter, and the factor influence force on the dimensional features of Nymphaea candida plants mainly varies within 8.7-89.5%. Water transparency did not show a statistically significant effect on the three morphological parameters, given the influence of this factor on all other features at the level of 13.2-19.4%. In Nymphaea candida plants, the largest majestic significant proportion (58.8%) of the dynamic morphoparameters were in the population of Nymphaea candida - Potamogeton lucens community, the smallest (in 64.7%) were in Numphoides peltata - Ceratophyllum demersum. The fastest growth of Nymphaea candida plants is in areas where there is no flow, the water columnvaries within 50-100 cm, the water transparency reaches the bottom, the silt bottom sediments are represented, and the phytocoenoses total projective coverage is 60-85%. Nevertheless, the total plant cover of Nymphaea candida can be from 10% to 40%. Within the study area, such habitat conditions are optimal to ensure the continued existence of populations of this species as a whole.

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 9, Number 1
Written by Rodica CATANĂ, Florența-Elena HELEPCIUC, Medana ZAMFIR, Larisa FLORESCU, Monica MITOI

The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the in vivo and in vitro Cnicus benedictus L. antioxidant activity based on secondary metabolites (total polyphenolic content and flavonoids). The species is used as an antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, cardiotonic, antimicrobial and anti-proliferative. The samples used for biochemical analysis were represented by two type of in vitro regenerated callus and different parts of in vivo mother plant. The callus cultures were initiated from the leaf explants from potted plant, cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2.4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4D) alone or in combination with 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP). In our conditions, the antioxidant activity was correlated with total phenolic content. The level of flavonoids was higher in callus than in the mother plant. Through HPLC, the rutin presence was validated in callus, and a higher number of constituents were observed.

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 9, Number 1
Written by Paul SĂRĂCUȚ, Florin SALA

This study evaluated the relationship of interdependence between agrochemical indices of the soil in the pedoclimatic conditions of Beregsău area, Timiș County, Romania. The agrochemical indices that characterize the agricultural soil, were taken into consideration: soil pH, nitric nitrogen (NO3-), ammoniacal nitrogen (NO4+), mineral nitrogen (Nmin), phosphorus (P2O5), potassium (K2O), secondary macro-elements (Ca, Mg, S), sodium (Na), and microelements (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B). Very high positive correlation was recorded between Nmin and NO3- (r = 0.990), and very high negative correlation was recorded between Mn and pH (r = -0.973). High positive correlations were recorded between Cu and K (r = 0.857), between Cu and Mg (r = 0.834), and between Na and Mg, respectively (r = 0.893); high negative correlation was recorded between Mg and Ca (r = -0.855). Moderate positive correlations were recorded between B and pH (r = 0.783), between Mg and K (r = 0.700), and moderate negative correlations were recorded between Ca and K (r = -0.738), and respectively between Na and Ca (r = -0.703). Based on the values of the coefficients of variation (CV) it was appreciated that pH, and potassium had the highest degree of uniformity in the characterization of the studied soil. High degree of variation was recorded in the case of nitrogen (NO3-,

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 9, Number 1
Written by Prithwiraj JHA

To assess the seasonal influence on the growth performance of goldfish, Carassius auratus (L.) in earthen ponds maintained under different production management regimes, two 11-week growth experiments were conducted during two different seasons (summer and winter) under tropical conditions in India. Weight gain, survival rate and fish deformities were compared among four management regimes in each season: (1) fish larvae fed with live zooplankton (LF); (2) direct fertilization with poultry manure (PM); (3) direct fertilization with cow dung (CD); (4) a control system (C), where a commercial diet containing 32% crude protein was applied. The LF treatment produced significantly higher weight gain and survival rate of goldfish (P < 0.05) in both the trials through maintenance of better water quality and greater abundance of zooplankton in the system. Fish deformities were highest in the C treatment in both the experiments. Water temperature averaged 27.5oC and 16.2oC, respectively, in the summer and the winter trials. Average weight gain and survival rates of goldfish achieved during the winter trial were considerably lower than the summer trial (P < 0.05).

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 9, Number 1
Written by Per SJÖGREN-GULVE

Demographic and age-structured modelling of local populations in a pool frog (Pelophylax lessonae) metapopulation reveals that the natural emigration from a population is of a magnitude which, if all emigrants are lost from the system, enhances local extinction risk in comparison to if the emigrants become immigrants in other local populations. In the latter case, annual population growth rate averaged λ = 1.2, while in the former λ averaged 0.994. Simulations indicated that single local populations in pristine habitat with emigration and no immigration have an extinction probability of 0.532 in 100 years, with extinction occurring from 11 years after isolation and mean time to extinction of 61 years. Such isolated populations were also highly vulnerable to additive mortality. In comparison, two local populations interconnected by dispersal were resilient to increased and higher local mortality provided that connectivity and the source population of immigrants were unaffected. This provides a demographic explanation of extinction patterns observed in the pool frog and other taxa that likely has general relevance for the conservation and management of subdivided populations in various landscapes.

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 9, Number 1
Written by Oleksandr ZHUYKOV, Oleksandr BURDIUG, Viktor USHKARENKO, Sergiy LAVRENKO, Nataliia LAVRENKO

The scientific paper presents the experimental data on the impact of different cultivation technologies on the indexes of assimilation surface area, chlorophyll content, its fractional composition (fractions “А” and “В”) and the yields of sunflower hybrids under conditions of the Southern Ukrainian Steppe. The research was conducted in 2018-2019 on dark-chestnut soil in the semi-arid conditions. The research scheme consisted of the following factors and their variants: sunflower hybrids (PR64F66, Tunca); cultivation technologies (intensive; organic). The research results proved that the best conditions for the formation of the largest area of assimilation apparatus by sunflower plants were created in the organic technology (treatment of soil + seeds + plants with organic preparations during the growing season) when growing the hybrid Tunca: at the stage of 3 pairs of true leaves - 2.9; the formation of heads - 27.1; flowering - 37.1 and milky ripeness - 29.0 thousand m2/ha. Under the same conditions there was maximum amount of chlorophyll (9.71 mg per 1 g of dry weight) and enzymes. Sunflower cultivation under the organic technology caused the formation of maximum yield (PR64F66 F1 - 2.42 and Tunca F1 - 2.41 t/ha), realization of biological productivity (90.9 and 90.7%) and fat content (48.7 and 49.8%).

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