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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 9, Number 1
Written by Olesea COJOCARU

This article discusses the assessment of the potential impact of climate change on agroecosystems in the Republic of Moldova. The final results obtained are based on the analysis and comparison of multiannual precipitation and average air temperature (observation period 2016-2019), in the assessment and forecast of the average crop yield. The high thermal regime and the significant deficit of precipitations contributed to the drying of the upper layer of the soil, creating unfavorable conditions for sowing the cereal crops of autumn on most of the territory of the country. The territory of the Republic of Moldova, by its geographical location, is located in the area with insufficient and unstable humidity. The instability of agrometeorological conditions essentially determines the variability and level of crop yield. Agrometeorological investigations were carried out regarding the current situation and the evolution of the meteorological conditions in the territory of the Republic of Moldova in 2019, according to the data of the State Hydrometeorological Service. The average harvest for the last 10 years of sugar beet constituted 310 q/ha; maize for grains constituted 34 q/ha; of sunflower seeds constituted 17 q/ha; of autumn wheat constituted 29 q/ha. The agricultural producers, as well as the public authorities, need a forecast of the productivity of the field crops in the desert in order to take the respective measures. Soil is the key to providing water, energy and building resilience to climate change. Therefore, the international community must take urgent measures to prevent the increasing loss of fertile land. The balance of the humus is profoundly deficient, the reserves of humus decrease annually by about 1t/ha, the nutrients by 180-200 kg/ha. Analysis of the previous weather conditions, forecasts and specialized agrometeorological calculations show that at the beginning of spring the productive moisture reserves in the soil layer with a thickness of 1 m on the fields with autumn crops and autumn plows will constitute 115-160 mm deep (80-115% of the norm).

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 9, Number 1
Written by Giulia MORETTI, Giuseppe POLLICINO, Fabrizio PASSAMONTI, Alexandra PETEOACĂ, Antonio DI MEO, Antonello BUFALARI

The intraoperative contamination of the surgical wound is a veterinary issue as it is closely related to surgical practices. It can originate from the patient’s endogenous flora, from the breakage of the sterility barrier or from the surrounding environment. This study aimed to assess the incidence, associated factors and bacteria isolated from 64 surgical wounds in dogs and cats that underwent surgery. It was also evaluated the influence of two different types of incisional surgical drapes, with and without Betadine®, for the control and the protection of the surgical site. It was found that, at the end of the surgery, 54% of the surgical wounds were contaminated and it was also demonstrated that adhesive surgical drapes play a crucial role in reducing the percentage of contamination. The most frequently isolated bacteria were: Staphylococcus spp., Gram-negative, oxidases-positive and bacilli. Therefore, according to these results, a thorough analysis of the risk factors and the development of innovative techniques and instruments are necessary to maintain the intraoperative bacterial load at sub-pathogenic levels.

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 9, Number 1
Written by Daniela MITEVA, Krasimir VELIKOV, Silviya IVANOVA, Krasimir DIMOV

The present work is based on the assumption that by supplementation thyme to defined concentration to feed of rabbits will improve the nutritional qualities of the meat and create opportunities for the development of safe products with high antioxidant activity, preserved nutritional value and easy digestion. This combination could protect against oxidative stress and increase the functional properties of the meat. To the feed of one experimental group was added 3% thyme (group T3) and to the other 5% thyme (group T5) at the expense of alfalfa hay (31.95% in control fodder). In the dispersion analysis we found that statistically significant differences were found only with respect to the weight of the liver which was lower in the groups fed with supplements of thyme compared to the control group, no significant differences were found with respect to the weight indicator. The incorporation of thyme into the fodder for fattening rabbits results in improved fatty acid composition in feed and meat, with the best results being achieved in rabbit breeding with the addition of 5% thyme leaves.

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 9, Number 1
Written by Alessio CESARETTI, Nicolò MONTEGIOVE, Eleonora CALZONI, Leonardo LEONARDI, Carla EMILIANI

The degradation of biomasses originating from agriculture and food processing offers the double benefit of removing polluting waste and introducing new bio-derived products into the market. Protein Hydrolysates (PHs), used as sources of bioactive peptides and amino acids play a fundamental role among biotechnological products deriving from waste biomasses. PHs are bio-based chemicals with high added value that can be produced through different types of hydrolysis: chemical, microbiological, enzymatic or mixed. Depending on the biomass used and the hydrolysis procedure chosen, products endowed with different features, such as high biostimulating, hormonal, fertilizing and nutritive capacities, can be obtained. The production of PHs from vegetable biomasses prove pivotal, as they offer absolute health guarantees and can be marketed in areas that do not abide products derived from animal waste, which currently are often found in the market. Here, the various possible applications of PHs will be discussed, along with the different processes for their production starting from agro-food waste biomasses, paying particular attention to the advantages of enzymatic hydrolysis.

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 9, Number 1
Written by Goshgar MAMMADOV, Tamara LEAH

In the experiment field on irrigated meadow - brown soil was found that at low soil provision of exchangeable potassium in apple orchards applying of different types of potash on a background of organic fertilizer (20 t ha-1 of manure), significantly increases the accumulation of the main nutrient elements in leaves and fruits, and also takeaway NPK with apple harvest (classical orchard - ʻGolden Deliciousʼ variety and intensive orchard - ʻFuzhiʼ variety). The best variant was the sharing of organic fertilizer system (20 t ha-1 of manure - as background) with the high dose of potassium sulphate (K160): compared with the control variant (without fertilizers), the yield was higher by 9.9 t ha-1 or 7.87%, and the removal of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium from the soil - by 69.0 kg ha-1, 46.3 kg ha-1and 120.4 kg ha-1, respectively; and compared with the background + K160 potassium chloride variant, these indicators were higher by 0.95 t ha-1, or 4.2%, respectively: 6.2 kg ha-1, 7.1 kg ha-1 and 14.2 kg ha-1. This variant was also effective in relation to the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the leaves and fruits of the apple trees, as well as the removal with harvest in classical orchard. Similar results were obtained using organo -mineral system fertilizer - 20 t ha-1 manure + K160 potassium sulphate also in intensive orchard.

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 9, Number 1
Written by Emanuela FILIP, Florin RUSSU, Ioana PORUMB, Leon MUNTEAN, Andreea ONA, Ancuța BOANTĂ, Doru PAMFIL, Gavrilă BORZA

Drought is one of the abiotic stress factors which affects the global production of grain cereals and is an important risk factor even for consecrated cultivation sites. This is even more acute for spring grains which are the most vulnerable to drought. This is the case for two-row spring barley which is highly sensitive to heat, especially in the post-anthesis phenophase. To monitor drought tolerance, we assess a number of 27 genotypes from the germplasm collection to identify the tolerant ones, to turn them into valuable genitors for cultivars adaptable to the new climate changes. In order to evaluate drought tolerance was used the principle of inducing this phenomenon through the use of chemical desiccants (NaClO3). The method is based on sprinkling the plants with desiccants (NaClO3) with a 2% concentration, 14 days after the anthesis. The genotypes that constitute the objective of this study are analysed through the prism of some components of production that are most significantly affected by the effects of drought appearing in the postanthesis phenophase, such as grain weight/spike and thousand grain weight (TGW). The most pronounced effect of the treatment is highlighted by the case of the genotypes Concerto and Vienna which reacts very favourably.

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 9, Number 1
Written by Ionuț Cătălin CUREA, Gina FÎNTÎNERU

Modernization of agricultural holdings is one of the most important measures in the Rural Development Programs, directly addressing the competitiveness of the agricultural sector. The specific funds for modernization accessed through Submeasure 4.1. - Investment in Agricultural Holdings and Measure 121 - Modernization of agricultural holdings are purposed to adapt agricultural holdings to market requirements, with a strong positive impact on agricultural production, on the marketing of agricultural products and also for environmental protection. This paper is intended to investigate the current state of the research conducted hitherto at the EU level and highlight trends in how academic literature has received CAP attempts in addressing the modernization of agricultural holdings. The scientific database Web of Science (WoS) was interrogated using a list of research terms and offering insights into research topics and trend evaluation from different perspectives. The provided data was processed through the CiteSpace software, by generating a series of interactive graphics. Subsequently, the conclusions obtained are used to identify possible future research as well as to conclude a further course of the modernization measures in the EU farms in the next reform of the Common Agricultural Policy.

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 9, Number 1
Written by Cristina Valentina ALBU (PROCA), Tudor Alexandru RĂDOI, Camelia Filofteia DIGUȚĂ, Florentina MATEI, Călina Petruța CORNEA

Laccases show multiple biotechnological application and different fungal groups have been widely reported as laccase producers. The main aim of our research it was to perform on-plate screening for laccase production among different macro and micromycetes, while optimising the screening protocol in the presence of different guaiacol concentrations. From our collection were taken into account filamentous fungi belonging to the following species: Aspergillus clavatus, A. aculeatus, Botrytis cinerea, Neurospora crassa, Trichoderma sp., Penicillium digitatum. Among the macromycetes were tested Laetiporus sulphureus, Ganoderma lucidum, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus. The screening was performed on PDA added with guaiacol. The positive microorganisms belong to two strains of Trichoderma spp. isolated from soils, one variety of P. ostreatus and two of A. bisporus originating from supermarket wastes. In the case of P. ostreatus, the use of guaiacol higher than 0.1% has inhibited the fungal growth, as well as the halo-formation. In the case of Trichoderma spp. strains the use of guaiacol above 0.1% and till 1% dind’t lead to any halo formation, while the mycelial growth was not inhibited; relevant halos were registered for the concentrations of 0.01% and 0.025%, when the maximum was reached after 6-7 cultivation days.

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 9, Number 1
Written by Silviu Viorel ANDREI, Mariana IONIŢĂ, Ioan Liviu MITREA

Parasitism of diferent strongylid nematodes belonging to the families Trichostrongylidae, Strongylidae and Ancylostomidae on sheep, are widespread in all regions of animal breeding, but especially in areas with a humid climate. As they result in drastic decreases in production of adult animals and growing delays in young animals, imposing costly prophylaxis measures, these parasitic diseases have a significant economic impact. While studies in helminthology are directed towards more in-depth perspectives, such as DNA modifications of parasites, the continuous monitoring of occurrence and prevalence of these parasitic species remains important. In addition, because there are few reports on gastrointestinal parasites of ruminants and especially of sheep in our country, the present study aims at investigating the occurrence of strongyle infections in sheep, in Southern Romania. For this, a coproparasitological study was carried out on a total number of 424 sheep, out of a population of 3256 animals, originating from six farms from this region. A flotation technique was used to detect helminth eggs; however, protozoa oocysts, when detected, were also registered; additionally a Baermann method, for detection of lungworm larvae was performed. The findings indicate the following infections, as follows: strongyles 65.1%; Moniezia spp. 18.9%; Eimeria spp. 14.4%; Protostrongylidae 7.1%, Dictyocaulus filaria 2.1%. The findings highlight the high occurrence of strongyle infections, but also of other parasitic species with significant impact on the both animal health and their productivity and highlight the importance of a proper parasitological control to be applied in sheep farms.

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 9, Number 1
Written by Adina VARADI, Diana HIRIŞCĂU, Marcel M. DUDA, Rozalia KADAR, Florin Marian RUSSU, Ioana PORUMB, Ionuț RACZ, Adrian CECLAN

In agriculture water and nitrogen are the main factors that influence crop production in all regions. Interactions between water and nitrogen fertilization are complicated. The present study investigated the influence of nitrogen fertilization rate and rainfall distribution on plant height, grain yield and grain protein content of four winter wheat varieties in a three years field experiment in Turda, Romania. To establish the relationships between nitrogen fertilization rate, rainfall distribution and grain yield the follow parameters was determined: the rain use efficiencies (RUE), nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Andrada and Codru had a significant higher RUE which means that this genotypes produced higher rate of grain yield per unit rainfall than Arieşan and Taisa. The highest NAE was recorded by Taisa which means that this cultivar has the highest ability to increase yield in response to the rate of nitrogen fertilizer applied. Andrada and Codru had the highest value of NUE, which means that these cultivars have the ability to use more efficiently the nitrogen to obtain a higher yield.

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