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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1
Written by Panna SEPSI, Edit SÁRKÖZI, Károly HROTKÓ, Levente KARDOS

The main goal of this study was to examine different leaf samples (Acer Platanoides 'Globusum’, Tilia Tomentosa, Fraxinus Excelsior 'Westhof's Glorie') collected alongside major roads and at Buda Arboretum of Corvinus University of Budapest. Three experiments were carried out at different times. For every one of them 30 leaf samples were collected from each taxon and from each area, on which 5 repeated experiments were performed (6 leaves per group). Groups of leaves were washed off with distilled water. After soaking and ultrasonic shaking filtrates were prepared. Conductivity (total salinity), pH, nitrate ion, ammonium ion, chloride ion, and sulphate ion concentrations were determined from these filtrates. According to our preliminary results higher air pollution level was associated to higher values of examined parameters. Detailed results are listed in our paper.

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 7, Number 1
Written by Alexandru Gabriel NEAGU, Mihai SĂVESCU, Ruxandra Georgiana TUDOR, Niculae TUDOR, Constantin VLĂGIOIU

Degenerative disc disease is a condition of the spine caused by dehydration and degeneration of intervertebral discs being an inevitable process with increasing age of the animals. These changes can lead to clinical and pathological diseases characterized differently, such as Hansen type II (protrusion) and Hansen type I (extrusion) disc disease. Medical records of three Beagle dogs, aged 3-8 years, who were presented in the clinic of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest with neurological features, were reviewed. Animals were evaluated by radiographic and MRIimaging. Radiographic examination was conducted in lateral incidence at the level of cervical segment. MRI images were obtained with a low field magnetic resonance of 0.3 Tesla, through: T1 SE (spin echo), T2 FSE (fast spin echo) and T1 sequences after the administration of contrast agent, dogs were positioned in lateral decubitus under inhalatory anesthesia. Radiographic examination revealed narrowing of the intervertebral space in two cases, at the level of C2-C3. MRI examination revealed intervertebral disc degeneration and dehydration at a total number of eight discs in the cervical segment from all three cases. Hansen type II (protrusion) compression on the spinal cord has been registered in one case at C3-C4 level, and in two cases was detected Hansen type I (extrusion) at C2-C3 level, with the movement of the disc fragments in the spine, confirmed by radiographic examination. Magnetic resonance imaging has provided a useful, safe, non-invasive evaluation of the cervical spinal cord.

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 2
Written by Krizia SAGINI, Lorena URBANELLI, Sandra BURATTA, Leonardo LEONARDI, Carla EMILIANI

Nanosized vesicles are released by animal cells in the extracellular environment and have been retrieved in body fluids. Their small dimensions and relative stability as compared to synthetic liposomes has prompted their use as drug and gene delivery vehicles. However, the use of animal vesicles originating from cultured cells is hampered by safety issues. Recent findings have shown that edible plant-derived nanovesicles with a biochemical content resembling that of vesicles isolated from animal cells and body fluids could be obtained from vegetal sources, such as grape and grapefruit juices. These nanovesicles improved the stability and bioavailability of orally administered bioactive compounds such as curcumin and have been proposed as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer and immunological disorders of the digestive tract. Furthermore, they have also shown therapeutic efficacy by themselves, being able to stimulate signaling pathways in intestinal target cells and demonstrating a cross-kingdom ability to transmit signals between vegetal and animal cells, that foster their use as nutriceuticals.

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1
Written by Mihaela GHIDURUȘ, Mioara VARGA

The objective of this experiment was to determine if the quality of sunflower oil enriched with mixtures of two antioxidants of rosemary extracts was improved during frying. The enriched oils have been subjected to frying process at a temperature of 1800C ± 10C and held for about seven hours per day, for a period of 10 days. Samples of frozen cooked potatoes were fried in these oils seven times a day, every hour. Quality evaluation of the oils took place every day of the experiment, as far as refractive index, acidity, p-anisidine value, K232 and K270 and polar and oxidation compounds were concerned.

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 2
Written by Nicolae IONESCU, Constantin-Bogdan POPA, Robert CHIRILĂ, Sorin DRĂGOI

Bio-products are increasingly used in agricultural production owing to their multiple advantages: they decompose organic matter, enter in dynamics with the humus from soil, fix nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere, solubilize fixed nutrients by clay-humic complex, block Fe3+ i.e. This paper presents the results obtained from using a complex of bioproducts: GeoCell-1, GeoAgit CNPK-1 and AlgaSanBa. They were applied either alone or in a complex mixture. The subsequent increase in the grain yields was important. Thus, winter wheat varied between 210 and 1010 kg.ha-1 on chernozem, and between 490 and 1430 kg.ha-1 on luvisol. Under the same conditions, sunflower increases varied between 290-730 kg.ha-1 on the first soil and 110-1190 kg.ha-1 on the second soil. Maize produced an addition of 70- 1030 kg.ha-1 in the first case and 110-1190 kg.ha-1 in the second case. The data demonstrate that the new bio-products are recommended for use in farm fields.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1
Written by Luminita VISAN, Ricuta DOBRINOIU, Gabriela MARGARIT, Silvana GUIDEA-DANAILA

The work refers to the analysis of aroma compounds identified in Tamaioasa Romanian wines from 2 distinct Romanian wine-growing areas: vineyard Stefanesti-Arges and Pietroasa, watching, and in particular the variation of flavorings depending on the region of origin. Gas chromatographic method coupled with mass Spectrometry were identified 6 esters, 3 higher alcohols, 1 aromatic alcohol, 2 terpenes, 1 lactone, 1 acid and 1 aldehyde. The high concentration of ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, isoamyl alcohol were identified; flavor specific Tamaioasa Romanian wine is given by 1-

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1
Written by Tiziano GARDI, Fabio BERTA, Carlo Alberto FABBRI, Cristina MARCHETTI

Pollination by native honeybees and other pollinating insects is very important for the economy of farmer and the ecosystems. For these reasons, in Italy, a project between the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Perugia (currently DSA3) and Syngenta Crop Protection S.p.a. (currently Syngenta Italia S.p.a.) started in order to verify if the presence of autochtonous vegetation could be not only attractive for the pollinating insects but also fit for safeguarding the useful insects and increasing their populations. This study indicates that it is practical for growers to create valuable habitats suitable for natural pollinators. Moreover, it is possible to significantly reduce soil erosion and protect the water resources from pollution through a careful planning and management. Based on 5-years results in Italy and others European Countries, actually “Operation Pollinator” is applied in 13 European Countries besides Swizerland, UK and USA with the aim to safeguard native pollinating insects and honeybees. Our study, connected to the “Operation Pollinator”, can be considered as forerunner of the Greening Measures within the new EU Common Agricultural Policy (2014-2020).

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 7, Number 1
Written by Iuliana ZAHARIA, Linda REISSIG, Gina FÎNTÎNERU, Adina Magdalena IORGA

Romanian farmers’ burnout rate is investigated through a questionnaire for explorative studies to cover the most commune influences on burnout, integrating original items with selective scales from COPSOQ II. The sample (n=241) joins men 65% and women 35% predominantly aged 40-54 years, medium studies, living in partnership, practicing conventional type of farming within rural areas mainly from 5/8 Romanian development regions, surface of farms lower than 10 ha 57% and 50+ha 23%, ownership of the farm “owner” 50% and “both partners owner” 30%; 58% of the respondents are farm manager, 61% work full-time within the farm. Top 5 (agricultural) pressure factors are: extreme weather events, managerial responsibility, economic pressure, heavy financial burden, lack of leisure. Within the burnout rate (8%), by gender females are almost three times more exposed comparing with males; the most exposed age category is 55-65 years; by double-pressure those who are not in this category are higher compromised (9%) than the others (5%) - which could be interpreted as more work, up to a certain level, involves more engagement and motivation so less chances for burnout and/or depression.

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1
Written by George Adrian COJOCARU, Arina Oana ANTOCE

Understanding of antioxidants role in the wine matrix is an important aspect when it comes to sensory quality and conformity of the product. This study aims to compare the effects of sulphur dioxide (SO2) as a conventional antioxidant, alone or in combination with ascorbic acid (AA), in the presence or not of reduced glutathione (GSH) in white wines from Sauvignon blanc and Muscat Ottonel grape varieties. The results demonstrate that consumption of oxygen occurs differently, mostly according to the phenolic composition of the variety rather than the antioxidants added fortheir protection. Sauvignon blanc wines are believed, and our results proved it, to be more sensitive to chemical oxidation due to certain polyphenols that may act as a good substrate for oxidation. On the other hand, Muscat Ottonel wines seem to have more resistant polyphenols to oxidation, while the additional presence of higher concentrations of terpenes may improve this resistance due to their ability to act as antioxidant substances as well. Regarding color intensity values, which are desirable to be low in white wines, we observed that the smallest values were achieved in wine samples treated with sulphur dioxide with or without glutathione addition. Conversely, wines treated with ascorbic acid had the most intense color, due to the oxidation of polyphenols, irrespective of grape variety. The samples treated with combinations of sulphur dioxide, glutathione and ascorbic acid showed increased color intensity as compared to samples treated only with glutathione, but not to the same extent as in the case of samples treated with ascorbic acid alone. Knowing that the main tool of the winemaker for the protection of aroma compounds and polyphenols remains the use of antioxidant supplementation, a better choice was proven to be the addition of glutathione in the presence of a moderate concentration of SO2. Precautions should be taken when using ascorbic acid as antioxidant, because the depletion of SO2 is fast, and then ascorbic acid acts as pro-oxidant, releasing hydrogen peroxide.

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Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1
Written by Muhammad MUDDASSIR, Muhammad SHAHID, Ahmed Awad Talb ALTALB, Syed Muhammad Waqar AHSAN, Muhammad MUBUSHAR, Muhammad Abubakar ZIA, Mehmood Ali NOOR,

Pakistan is one of the developing countries and major portion of its economy depends on agriculture. The study aim was to identify the different factors affecting the adoption of Bt cotton and analysis of paradigm shift from Non-Bt to Bt cotton in tehsil Jatoi of Muzaffargarh district, which provided a guideline for extension organizations to develop better strategies in future for effective extension work towards Bt cotton production. The data were collected from 120 Bt cotton growers through random sampling technique. The data were analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviations and rank order were used for interpretation of the data. The study revealed that maximum respondents were belonging to the middle age group, agriculture and livestock farming were their source of income and their maximum cultivation was under Non-Bt cotton. Cotton growers were highly dependent on pesticide companies for agricultural information. The higher crop yield was the major factor which shifted the farmers to grow Bt cotton. Unapproved Bt, high fertilizer requirement and non-availability of seed were the threatening factors being faced in Bt cotton cultivation, ranked at medium scale. Opportunities of less use of pesticides, increase in production and net annual income, reduction in health hazards, less cost of production and availability of certified seeds was generated by the cultivation of Bt cotton, was recorded at medium scale.

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