Costbenefit analysis of bioconversion neufchatel whey intorectified ethanol and organic liquid fertilizer in semi pilot scale

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1
Written by Gemilang Lara UTAMA, Lobo Balia ROOSTITA, Tubagus Benito Achmad KURNANI, SUNARDI

Aims of the study was to determine the cost-benefit analysis in neufchatel whey bioconversion into rectified ethanol and organic liquid fertilizer. Bioconversion whey into rectified ethanol and organic liquid fertilizer has shown great potential as a way to reduce the pollution resulting from cheese-making process. Semi pilot scale experiment was done to ferment 5 L neufchatel whey using 5% K. lactis at 33°C for 24 h in semi anaerobic plastic container without agitation and then distilled into 96.2% purity. Data collected and analyzed descriptively related to benefit cost ratio/BCR, net present value/NPV and internal rate returns/IRR. The result showed that semi pilot scale bioconversion of neufchatel whey resulting in 106.42 ml rectified ethanol and 4404.22 ml distillery residue. Economic benefit could achieved by the support of distillery residue sales as organic liquid fertilizer.

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Gemilang Lara UTAMA, Lobo Balia ROOSTITA, Tubagus Benito Achmad KURNANI, SUNARDI 2015, Cost-benefit analysis of bioconversion neufchatel whey intorectified ethanol and organic liquid fertilizer in semi pilot scale. Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1, PRINT ISSN 2285-5718, 192-196.

DETERMINATION OF HEATING REQUIREMENTS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF GREENHOUSES IN ADANA REGION OF TURKEY

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1
Written by H. Huseyin OZTURK, H. Kaan KUCUKERDEM

In this study, the heating loads of plastic greenhouses were determined based on long term meteorological data in Adana region of Turkey. Considering the air temperature requirements of warm season species, energy consumptions were calculated for heating periods. If the monthly average low temperatures are considered as the outside air temperature, when the air temperature in the greenhouse is considered as in 180C, the average greenhouse heating load is 64.4 W/m2, during the October-May heating period. However, when the air temperature in the greenhouse is considered as in 150C, the average greenhouse heating load is 44.5 W/m2 during the same period. The average energy consumption for 1 da greenhouse heating (Tg=150C) is 176 MJ/h, during the October-May heating period.

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OZTURK H.H., KUCUKERDEM H.K. 2016, DETERMINATION OF HEATING REQUIREMENTS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF GREENHOUSES IN ADANA REGION OF TURKEY. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 157-160.

DETERMINATION OF THE SALT TOLERANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME BREAD WHEAT CULTIVARS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 2
Written by Aidin ALP, Sadettin ÇELİK, Döne PARLAK

The study was performed in 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 vegetation seasons in the Dicle University, Agricultural Faculty, Research and Application Field and open greenhouse conditions. In this study, dry plant weight, K+/Na+ rates, Ca, Fe, and Zn contents in green parts of different 5 bread wheat cultivars of foreign origin, and the standard bread wheat cultivar, which is cultivated commonly in Southeastern Anatolia Region, have been compared under salt stress in pots. In addition, the agricultural characteristics like Number of Heading Days, Plant Height, Plant Grain Yield and Thousand Grain Weight were measured both in field and pot experiments. It has been determined in the study that average dry weight decreased at a rate of 43.5%, and the K+/Na+rate decreased at a rate of 50.1% in all wheat cultivars that are cultivated in salinity conditions. The Calcium (Ca) content of all cultivars increased at a significant level with the salt application. While the zinc (Zn) content of the Muzik cultivar decreases in salt stress, the Zn contents of the other cultivars have increased.

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ALP A., ÇELİK S., PARLAK D. 2017, DETERMINATION OF THE SALT TOLERANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME BREAD WHEAT CULTIVARS. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 2, ISSN 2285-5718, 16-21.

Determining adaptive capacity to climate change in the grape and wine industry

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 2
Written by Kerrie PICKERING, Ryan PLUMMER, Gary PICKERING

The agricultural sector is sensitive to climate change (CC) and associated extreme weather events, but suffers in Canada from little strategic research and policy on CC adaptation. The wine industry is often considered the 'canary in the coal mine’ for CC due to the narrow geographic and climatic range required by many grape varieties. Adapting to current and projected CC challenges requires industry stakeholders to determine the risks and benefits of CC and develop a level of adaptive capacity. The objectives of this study were to develop a metric for assessing the adaptive capacity of a grape/wine industry, and apply that tool to the Ontario case. A framework was developed and represented as a three-tiered, hierarchical structure, which included eight operational and strategic determinants (financial, institutional, technological, political, knowledge, perception, social capital, and diversity), and 28 specific indicators. A comprehensive questionnaire was created from this framework consisting of 26 statements to which participants indicated their level of agreement. 42 Ontario wine industry members completed the questionnaire via an on-line survey. Results show that the Ontario wine industry has some adaptive capacity in all the key resources assessed. Perception, diversity and knowledge are the determinants with the greatest capacity, while political and technological are the most limited. Overall, industry stakeholders do not perceive they are at a coping threshold and are interested in learning how to better adapt to the impacts of CC. Results are discussed in the context of opportunities to enhance adaptive capacity in the grape/wine community.

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Kerrie PICKERING, Ryan PLUMMER, Gary PICKERING 2014, Determining adaptive capacity to climate change in the grape and wine industry. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 2, ISSN 2285-5718, 49-53.

DEVELOPMENT OF A DOWNSTREAM EMERGENCY RESPONSE SERVICE FOR DISASTER HAZARD MANAGEMENT BASED ON EARTH OBSERVATION DATA

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1
Written by Gheorghe STANCALIE, Vasile CRACIUNESCU, Anisoara IRIMESCU, Iulia Dana NEGULA, Ion NEDELCU, Florin SERBAN, Delia TELEAGA, Stefan-Adrian TOMA, Daniela FAUR, Mihai DATCU, Ana VIRSTA

The number of hydrological (flood, mass movement), meteorological (tropical storm, extratropical storm, convective storm, local storm), climatological (extreme temperature, drought, wildfire) and geophysical (earthquake, tsunami, volcanic activity) events continue to increases in the last decades at global level. According to different research, statistics and databases (UNISDR, EM-DAT) floods are the most frequent in the last decades worldwide and especially in Romania. On the other hand, the probabilistic hazard results for Romania indicate that, in the future, the highest damages will be produced by floods and earthquakes. In this context, it has become necessary to develop an emergency response service. The emergency service, named GEODIM, integrates the GIS geodatabases: roads, rivers, administrative units, land cover/land use, satellite data (optical and synthetic aperture radar), in-situ measurements, in order to support the disaster management. The Earth Observations data offers the capabilities to monitor the disasters at a large scale, being able to identify areas where the events are not in-situ observed or to monitor large vulnerable areas potentially affected by disasters. The paper presents the downstream emergency response service for disaster hazard in Romania, based on Earth Observation data and other geo-information information.

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STANCALIE Gh., CRACIUNESCU V., IRIMESCU A., NEGULA I.D., NEDELCU I., SERBAN F., TELEAGA D., TOMA S.A., FAUR D., DATCU M., VIRSTA A. 2016, DEVELOPMENT OF A DOWNSTREAM EMERGENCY RESPONSE SERVICE FOR DISASTER HAZARD MANAGEMENT BASED ON EARTH OBSERVATION DATA. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 199-208.

DIFFERENT DIAGNOSTIC METHODS FOR UTERIN INFECUNDITY IN DAIRY COWS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1
Written by Tiberiu CONSTANTIN, Iulia PARASCHIV, Todoru SOARE, Andreea ISTRATE, Manuella MILITARU, Ion Alin BÎRȚOIU

Different clinical and paraclinical methods were used to investigate some reproductive indices. In this work 42 Holstein cows, between 21 and 62 days in milk (DIM), were examined by rectal palpation (RP), vaginoscopy (V), endocervical (ECC) and endometrial (EMC) cytological exam. Cervicitis was diagnosed when the second cervical fold was swollen and prolapsed with or without reddening. Cytobrush technique and cotton swab technique were used to take cytology samples at 21-33 DIM (PMN ≥8%), at 34-47 (PMN ≥6%) DIM and 48-62 DIM (PMN ≥4%) and stained using Diff-Quick. The percentage of neutrophils in the uterus and the cervix as indicators of inflammation was determined. Also, for reproductive management it was used uterine histopathologial (HPT) exam in another 12 puerperal cows. Conventional microscopic examination of the tissue sections allowed visualization of histological changes such as normal structure, infiltrate of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), hiperemia, moderate acute endometritis, periferal hemorragies secundar to biposy and hemosiderosis. In total, 78.57% (11/14) of femals had a normal cervix and, after using cytobrush method it was observed that 5 from 14 cows had over 91.08% of PMN. The incidence of subclinical endometritis was recorded as 60.71% (17/28). Another conclusion is that cervical swab cytology is not a good method compared to cytobrush technique that is reliable. Using cytobrush the incidence of subclinical endometritis was recorded as 60.71% (17/28). Endometrial biopsy in postpartum dairy cows might be useful and accurate procedure for detecting existence and severity of endometritis.

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CONSTANTIN T., PARASCHIV I., SOARE T., ISTRATE A., MILITARU M., BÎRȚOIU I.A. 2017, DIFFERENT DIAGNOSTIC METHODS FOR UTERIN INFECUNDITY IN DAIRY COWS. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 65-68.

DISSIPATION OF ACETOCHLOR AND RESIDUE ANALYSIS IN MAIZE AND SOIL UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1
Written by Irina Gabriela CARA, Florin Daniel LIPȘA, Mihai Sorin CARA, Lavinia BURTAN, Denis ȚOPA, Gerard JITĂREANU

Acetochlor is a widespread used herbicide in maize crops; however, the environmental risk of its residues in the soilplant system remains unknown. There was assessed the dissipation dynamics of acetochlor doses and its impact on residue level and microbial activity in soil over a season of vegetation. Since the herbicide was applied to the soil surface, its degradation varies as a dependence of concentration, soil type, pH, organic matter and environmental conditions. The field soil samples extraction in different imposed conditions of depths, time and herbicide application revealed a moving deeper of doses. The increased dose (80%+Rd) affects the persistence of acetochlor in the top layer by increasing its half-life from 14 to 17 days. Dissipation followed a first order kinetics. The diversity of soil microbial community changed after the introduction of acetochlor doses. An evident increase of bacteria and soil microorganisms was observed; however, fungal growth was prone to be inhibited. The higher concentration of herbicide was found to be safe, as well as the residues of acetochlor below maximum residue limits (MRL) at the end of maize crop season.

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CARA I.G., LIPȘA F.D., CARA M.S., BURTAN L., ȚOPA D., JITĂREANU G. 2017, DISSIPATION OF ACETOCHLOR AND RESIDUE ANALYSIS IN MAIZE AND SOIL UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 48-55.

EARTH OBSERVATION SATELLITE DATA IN SUPPORT OF WATER MANAGEMENT FOR AGRICULTURE

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 2
Written by Iulia Dana NEGULA, Alexandru BADEA, Cristian MOISE, Violeta POENARU

The Earth Observation (EO) satellite data provided within the Copernicus Programme supports the monitoring and sustainable management of agriculture. For example, satellite data are useful for agriculture mapping, crop health monitoring, land planning, disease mitigation, crop yields estimation, precise agriculture, and sustainable irrigation water management. The identification of non-authorised water abstractions for irrigation is of high importance since the drought phenomenon is increasingly in the past decades due to climate change. This aspect is addressed by DIANA – “Detection and Integrated Assessment of Non-authorised water Abstractions using EO", a project funded by the European Commission in the frame of H2020 (European Union Framework Programme for Research and Innovation). The project will integrate data acquired by the Sentinel missions (Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3) and as well Landsat and MODIS. Other types of data (meteorological, land use/land cover, digital elevation models, soil, etc.) will support the satellite data processing and the generation of value-added products. In addition, the project aims at significantly improve the monitoring and assessment of the water management policies and practices. As the project is in its initial phase, the results presented in this article are preliminary. The project will demonstrate the relevance of EO data for sustainable agriculture management and will bring societal and environmental benefits to the end users.

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NEGULA I.D., BADEA A., MOISE C., POENARU V. 2017, EARTH OBSERVATION SATELLITE DATA IN SUPPORT OF WATER MANAGEMENT FOR AGRICULTURE. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 2, ISSN 2285-5718, 133-136.

ECOLOGY ISSUES OF SOYBEAN CROP PLANTS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1
Written by Nicolae IONESCU, Aurelian PENESCU, Pompiliu CHIRILĂ

Being a plant with considerable agronomic qualities, soybean returns to farmers attention (Dencescu et al.,1982b; Ionescu, 1985). Indeed the new varieties have improved by characters: high production potential, quality and constantly over time (Gallais & Bennerot, 1992). In exchange for use of these qualities are needed informations about how to adapt plants in different ecological areas (Giosan et al., 1986). Given white luvicsoil in South the plant finds a good regime of sufficient rainfall and temperature (Ionescu et al., 1986; 1994). Against this background proved to be important the specific crop system. 2.0-3.0 t.ha-1 yields were obtained while during the filling of the grains fell 150-200 mm water. During the growing season of 100-140 days have accumulated 1200-14000C temperatures above 100C. Among during the growing season and grain production achieved a positive correlation (r=0.591***) so that varieties with higher period during the growing season formed the best production. Plant morphology: size, number of pods per plant and grains were positively correlated with grain yield. Negative correlations were obtained between the thousand grains weight-TGW with production of grains, TGW with grain number per plant and between fat content with the content of crude protein of the grain. Production levels achieved over the years has been between 1.06 and 3.49 t.ha-1 like limits. Among the crop items highlighted technological density peaks at 60-80 seeds.sq.m-1.

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IONESCU N., PENESCU A., CHIRILĂ P. 2016, ECOLOGY ISSUES OF SOYBEAN CROP PLANTS. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 99-104.

Effect of conservation agriculture on yield and protecting environmental resources

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1
Written by Teodor RUSU, Ileana BOGDAN, Doru Ioan MARIN, Paula Ioana MORARU, Adrian Ioan POP, Bogdan Matei DUDA

Conservative soil tillage (minimum tillage and no-tillage) are considered among the most important components of conservation agriculture. Their research and extension was imposed especially in hilly areas with specific problems of desertification (erosion, drought) as bioremedial measures. Our research follows the effects of the three tillage systems: conventional systems, minimum tillage and no-tillage on soil properties (bulk density, penetration resistance, temperature and moisture, soil respiration) and on the production of wheat, maize and soybean, obtained on an Argic Faeoziom from the Somes Plateau. Average soil bulk density grows, compared to the conventional system (1.20-1.24 g/cm3), in all variants with minimum tillage (1.22-1.32 g/cm3); the highest growth is recorded at no-tillage, being 1.35- 1.38 g/cm3 with statistically significant positive differences. Soil moisture increases in all variants with minimum and no-tillage with different percentages, ranging from 1-15% v/v, compared to the conventional system. This is also reflected in the values of resistance to penetration. Tillage appeared to affect the timing rather than the total amount of CO2 production: the daily average is lower at no-tillage (315-1914 mmoles m-2s-1), followed by minimum tillage (318- 2395 mmoles m-2s-1) and is higher in the conventional system (321-2480 mmoles m-2s-1). Productions obtained at minimum tillage and no-tillage did not have significant differences for the wheat culture but were higher for soybean. The differences in crop yields were recorded at maize and can be a direct consequence of loosening, mineralization and intensive mobilization of soil fertility

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Teodor RUSU, Ileana BOGDAN, Doru Ioan MARIN, Paula Ioana MORARU, Adrian Ioan POP, Bogdan Matei DUDA 2015, Effect of conservation agriculture on yield and protecting environmental resources. Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1, PRINT ISSN 2285-5718, 141-145.


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