EFFECTS OF FERTILIZATION AND ROW SPACING ON GRAIN SORGHUM YIELD GROWN IN SOUTH-EASTERN ROMANIA

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1
Written by Cristina Andreea OPREA, Ciprian BOLOHAN, Doru Ioan MARIN

The paper presents the results of a research conducted during 2014-2016 with the purpose of identifying the optimal interaction of technological factors for the cultivation of grain sorghum (sowing distance x fertilization level), in order to optimize the yield of crops grown in South-East Romania. The research was carried on a soil chromic luvisol using ten fertilization levels and two sowing distances between rows. Results show that both sowing distance and fertilization had a statistically significant influence on sorghum’s grain yield. The most favourable combination of technological factors, which ensured a maximum yield of 9.22 t/ha, was represented by sowing sorghum at the distance of 70 cm between rows and using a fertilization level N120 P60 K60. Compared to the sowing distance of 50 cm between rows, the sowing distance of 70 cm between rows generated yield increases between 0.21 t/ha and 0.48 t/ha.

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OPREA C.A., BOLOHAN C., MARIN D.I. 2017, EFFECTS OF FERTILIZATION AND ROW SPACING ON GRAIN SORGHUM YIELD GROWN IN SOUTH-EASTERN ROMANIA. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 173-177.

ELECTROCHEMOTHERAPY: A REVIEW OF ITS USE AND LIMITATIONS IN SMALL ANIMAL ONCOLOGY

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1
Written by Ana Maria GOANȚĂ, Lucian IONIȚĂ

Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a recent anticancer treatment used for solid tumours in which square wave electric pulses are combined with a chemotherapeutic drug administered either intravenously or intratumourally. The drugs most frequently used in veterinary medicine are bleomycin and cisplatin. Due to the advanced cancer stage in which companion animals are usually diagnosed, treatment with surgery alone is either inefficient or not accepted by the owner, either due to loss of function or cosmetic effect. This is where multimodal therapies come in, by combining surgery with chemotherapy, radiation therapy and other therapies. Unfortunately, these are currently not available in our country or are cost-prohibitive. The only major disadvantage of ECT is the need for general anesthesia, especially when the treatment has to be repeated. This paper reviews 13 articles on ECT in small animal medicine so far in order to establish the method’s current indications, limitations and success rates for different types of cancer. Electrochemotherapy has numerous advantages: it is a simple method, with almost insignificant side effects (muscle contractions during the application of electric pulses and in some cases local edema or necrosis after therapy), it can be applied as single therapy or adjuvant to surgery and can be used for inoperable tumours, it can be repeated several times without being less effective and, last but not least, it is an affordable method. In conclusion, ECT is a welcome addition in the fight against cancer in animals as the incidence of diagnosed malignancy in veterinary medicine is ever rising.

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GOANȚĂ A.M., IONIȚĂ L. 2017, ELECTROCHEMOTHERAPY: A REVIEW OF ITS USE AND LIMITATIONS IN SMALL ANIMAL ONCOLOGY. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 125-132.

Environmental risk assessment of some copper based fungicides according to the requirements of good laboratory practice

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1
Written by Marga GRADILA

The paper presents data demonstrating the functionality of biological systems reconstituted with aquatic organisms developed under Good Laboratory Practice testing facility within Research - Development Institute for Plant Protection Bucharest for environmental risk assessment of four fungicides based on copper, according to Good Laboratory Practice requirements. For risk assessment, according to GLP were made the following steps: Good Laboratory Practice test facility was established, we have ensured adequate space for growth, acclimatization and testing for each test species, it was installed a complex water production instalation needed to perform tests, it was achieved control system for checking environmental conditions and have developed specific operating procedures that have been accredited according to Good Laboratory Practice.The results showed that biological systems model of the Good Laboratory Practice test facility in Research - Development Institute for Plant Protection meet the requirements of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Guidelines regarding GLP, and after testing copper-based fungicides in terms of acute toxicity Cyprinus carpio and to Daphnia magna revealed that three of them (copper oxychloride, copper hydroxide and copper sulphate) showed ecological efficiency, ie low toxicity. Metallic copper based fungicides showed a higher toxicity, resulting in fish toxicity symptoms: sleep, sudden immersion, faded, weakness, swimming in spiral, lack of balance, breathing slow and cumbersome, spasms and mortality

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Marga GRADILA 2015, Environmental risk assessment of some copper based fungicides according to the requirements of good laboratory practice. Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1, PRINT ISSN 2285-5718, 74-78.

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY ON PARASITE INFECTIONS IN HORSES FROM DIFFERENT TYPES OF EQUINE ESTABLISHMENTS, ROMANIA

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1
Written by Marius Cătălin BUZATU, Ioan Liviu MITREA, Eugene LYONS, Mariana IONIȚĂ

Horses are hosts to a variety of internal parasites which represent a significant threat to their health. Parasitic infections in horses are often associated with reduced performance and physical condition, to serious pathological conditions such as colic, severe diarrhoea, and even death. An epidemiological study was undertaken in order to investigate the prevalence and abundance of parasite infections in horses (n=233) raised in different types of equine establishments in Romania, such as stud farms (n=87), recreational unit (n=25), and working horses (n=121). For this, individual fresh faecal samples were collected and further examined for helminth eggs and protozoa oocysts using qualitative and quantitative copro-parasitological methods. Overall, 88.4% of the horses raised in stud farms and recreational units and 79.3% of the working horses were positive for strongyles, the most prevalent parasite infection. Other parasite species identified were Parascaris equorum (prevalences of 13.4% and 14.9%, respectively) and Eimeria leuckarti (12.5% and 13.5%, respectively); Anoplocephala spp. infection was found only in working horses (6.6%). The quantitative faecal examination for strongyle egg count showed higher individual egg output (EPG up to 5350) and higher percentage of horses (54.5%) from collective units as intense strongyle egg shedders (EPG>1000) comparing with working horses (32.3%). These results emphasized that strongyle infections are widespread in Romanian horses, with prevalence influenced by the age of animals and the management grazing practices. Higher parasite contamination pressure was registered for horses sharing pastures and grazing areas. These results will help to develop sustainable control program in Romanian horses.

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BUZATU M.C., MITREA I.L., LYONS E., IONIȚĂ M. 2016, EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY ON PARASITE INFECTIONS IN HORSES FROM DIFFERENT TYPES OF EQUINE ESTABLISHMENTS, ROMANIA. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 31-35.

ETHANOL FERMENTATION FROM MICROWAVE-ASSISTED ACID PRETREATED RAW MATERIALS BY Scheffersomyces stipitis

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1
Written by Mustafa GERMEC, Ali OZCAN, Cansu YILMAZER, Nurullah TAS, Zeynep ONUK, Fadime DEMIREL, Irfan TURHAN

The production of value-added products from renewable resources have been studied by researchers for years and are still being studied due to the fact that there is a point of interest. In this study, ethanol production from microwave assisted acid pretreated renewable resources including barley husk, wheat bran, and rye bran was performed. The hydrolysis of renewable resources were performed at 700 W of microwave power, 6.92 min of irradiation time, 1:18.26 w/v of solid-to-liquid ratio, and 3.67% v/v of acid ratio for barley husk, 600 W, 6.92 min, 1:16.69 w/v, and 1.85% for wheat bran, and 460 W, 6.15 min, 1:17.14 w/v, and 2.72% for rye bran. The hydrolysates were detoxified with 2% (w/v) activated charcoal at 30ºC and 150 rpm for 30 min. Then, the enriched hydrolysates were utilized to produce ethanol in shake flask fermentation by Scheffersomyces stipitis (ATCC 58784) that is a xylose fermenting yeast at 150 rpm and 30ºC with 5% (v/v) inoculum size. Results indicated that the highest ethanol production (6.15 g/L) was performed in shake flask fermentation with wheat bran medium. However, the lowest ethanol concentration (1.37 g/L) was obtained from barley husk medium. Also, 4.89 g/L of ethanol was produced in rye bran media. Nonetheless, while the highest ethanol yield was calculated to be 44.11% in wheat bran media, the lowest ethanol yield was 12.78% in barley husk medium. On the other hand, the sugar utilization yields in barley husk, wheat bran, and rye bran mediums were also computed to be 85.33, 94.09, and 94.74%, respectively. Consequently, raw materials used in this study can be utilized as good carbon sources for production of ethanol by fermentation.

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GERMEC M., OZCAN A., YILMAZER C., TAS N., ONUK Z., DEMIREL F., TURHAN I. 2017, ETHANOL FERMENTATION FROM MICROWAVE-ASSISTED ACID PRETREATED RAW MATERIALS BY Scheffersomyces stipitis. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 112-118.

EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVE COMPOUNDS FOUND IN Silybi mariani fructus

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1
Written by Daniela IONESCU, Simona SPÎNU, Alina ORŢAN, Ionuţ MORARU, Gina FÎNTÎNERU, Radu Claudiu FIERĂSCU, Irina FIERĂSCU, Manuel DRUGULESCU

Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) is a herbaceous plant, annual or biennial, cultivated, sometimes as sub-spontaneous plant, which is found from the Mediterranean Region to Central Asia. This plant contains biologically active compounds such as flavonoids (quercetin, taxifoline and dehydrokermepherol), lipids (linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitic acid), sterols and mucilages, sugars (arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, glucose), amines and saponins (cholesterol, campesterol and stigmasterol). This paper describes methods for obtaining extracts, in order to obtain active biological compounds from Silybi mariani fructus, extracts characterised through modern analytical techniques, as well as the evaluation of their antioxidant activity.

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IONESCU D., SPÎNU S., ORŢAN A., MORARU I., FÎNTÎNERU G., FIERĂSCU R.C., FIERĂSCU I., DRUGULESCU M. 2017, EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVE COMPOUNDS FOUND IN Silybi mariani fructus. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 141-145.

EVALUATION OF THE GENETIC VARIABILITY CORRELATED WITH MULTILEAFLET TRAIT IN ALFALFA

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 2
Written by Sorina POPESCU, Oana-Maria BOLDURA, Sorin CIULCA

The multileaflet trait on alfalfa determine high biomass and increased protein content, therefore the understanding of the metabolic pathway controlling this trait it is of great importance. Different mechanisms were already described, but none of them give a complete explanation for this phenotype. The aim of our work was to evaluate the genetic variability for 8 different plants, both tri and multileaflet ones, originated from MF 42-96 alfalfa synthetic line developed by ICDA Fundulea and wild-type cultivated alfalfa, based on ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat) markers. Eight ISSR markers were selected from a collection of 20 primers, due to their high polymorphism among the analyzed samples. All the primers generated 157 fragments of which 122 (77.7%) were polymorphic. The evaluation with the UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method) clustering method generated information regarding variability and the dendrogram. The determined similarities coefficients range between 0.44 and 0.64, pointing out a medium variability between samples, with no correlation between phenotypes. In the same clusters were present both tri and multileaflet plants. However, seven polymorphic fragments were identified, present only in multileaflet individuals fingerprints, but absent for all the trileaflet ones. These fragments could be possible candidates to develop a microsatelite markers linked with the multileaflet phenotype on alfalfa.

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POPESCU S., BOLDURA O.M., CIULCA S. 2016, EVALUATION OF THE GENETIC VARIABILITY CORRELATED WITH MULTILEAFLET TRAIT IN ALFALFA. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 2, ISSN 2285-5718, 125-130.

EVALUATION OF THE MODERN METHODS OF ASSESSING THE DAMAGE SUFFERED BY RAPESEED CROPS AT THE END OF WINTER

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 2
Written by Alexandra TRIF, Mihai GÎDEA, Aurelian PENESCU

The aim of this paper is to determine the benefit of modern methods of scanning and processing images of a rapeseed crop to determine affected areas at the end of winter. There are where the measurements took place is on the study grounds of “Belciugatele Research Station - Moara Domnească Farm”. Three methods were used, all based on the same image provided by a drone as a basemap, and RTK-GPS measurements. For the first method the affected areas were delimited using a RTK receiver, which required a person on the ground to manually provide the required data. The second method uses the same image, but digitizing was done at a later date by using GIS instruments. In the third method the digitizing was also done using software, by classifying the pixels. The result of the study showed that the third method was superior because of higher precision and lower processing time.

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TRIF A., GÎDEA M., PENESCU A. 2016, EVALUATION OF THE MODERN METHODS OF ASSESSING THE DAMAGE SUFFERED BY RAPESEED CROPS AT THE END OF WINTER. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 2, ISSN 2285-5718, 151-155.

EXTRACTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF A SERINE PROTEASE INHIBITOR FROM FLAX SEED (Linum usitatissimum L.)

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 2
Written by Mihaela-Carmen EREMIA, Irina LUPESCU, Gabriela Valeria SAVOIU, Maria SPIRIDON

The trypsin inhibitor from common flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum trypsin inhibitor, abbreviate LUTI) is a member of the potato inhibitor I family. This was isolated and purified by ethanol fractionation, ion exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography. To determine the molecular mass of protease inhibitor we utilized gel electrophoresis in denatured conditions (SDS-PAGE). LUTI is the first serine protease-type inhibitor isolated from a plant of Linaceae family, and has a molecular mass 7000D.

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EREMIA M.C., LUPESCU I., SAVOIU G.V., SPIRIDON M. 2016, EXTRACTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF A SERINE PROTEASE INHIBITOR FROM FLAX SEED (Linum usitatissimum L.). AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 2, ISSN 2285-5718, 65-70.

Food safety regulations based on real science

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1
Written by Huub LELIEVELD

Differences in regulations result in needless destruction of safe food and hamper food trade. The differences are not just the result of the history of food safety regulations, often developed in times before global cooperation, but are also built in new regulations. It may be responses to media hypes or for other reasons, but in most cases the differences cannot be justified scientifically. A major difficulty is that, due to the developments in analytical techniques the number of chemicals that are found in food is increasing rapidly and chemicals are always suspected to be a safety risk. By far most chemicals are of natural origin but could not be detected in the past because the methods available in the past were not sensitive enough. Demanding the absence of chemicals because the risk they present is unknown, however, would eventually make all food unacceptable. The general public should be shown that everything they eat is chemical, and all food components will be toxic if the amount is too high. It should also be shown that many of these chemicals will also cause illness and death if there is not enough of it as is the case with vitamins and minerals.

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Huub LELIEVELD 2015, Food safety regulations based on real science. Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1, PRINT ISSN 2285-5718, 93-96.


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