FRACTAL ANALYSIS AS A TOOL FOR POMOLOGY STUDIES: CASE STUDY IN APPLE

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1
Written by Florin SALA, Olimpia IORDĂNESCU, Alin DOBREI

This study evaluated the possibility of characterization and discrimination of apple cultivars by fractal analysis of the shape of leaves. The geometry of the leaf lamina from five apple cultivars (Delicios de Voineşti, Florina, Generos, Jonathan and Pionier) was studied by fractal analysis, box-counting method, for obtaining fractal dimensions (D). Leaf lamina descriptor parameters (length - L, width – W, perimeter – P, and leaf area - LA) were determined for the comparative analysis with fractal dimensions in order to characterize the cultivars studied. Based on fractal dimensions (D) obtained from the analysis of the geometry of the leaf, the five apple cultivars studied were characterized and discriminated safely statistics (Cophenetic coefficient = 0.967). Regression analysis revealed the relationship of interdependence between leaf area and fractal dimensions (D) for each apple cultivar. From comparing the coefficient of variation of foliar parameters studied (L, W, P, LA), that the fractal dimensions (D) had the smallest variation within each apple cultivar, which shows that the fractal dimension (D) is a more stable parameter for characterization of the apple cultivars studied compared with other elements of the leaf lamina. According to the values of the correlation coefficient R2 and safety parameters (p and RMSE), the fractal dimensions (D) facilitated the prediction of leaf area certainly higher than in the classics descriptors parameters of the leaves L, W and P ( RD2 = 0.991 for Florina; RD2 = 0.985 for Generos and Pionier; RD2 = 0.982 for Delicios de Voinești and RD2 = 0.979 for Jonathan). Fractal analysis has proven to be a tool with great power for the analysis, characterization and discrimination of the five apple cultivars studied, and predicting of the leaf area based on fractal dimension (D), which recommends it as a tool in pomology studies.

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SALA F., IORDĂNESCU O., DOBREI A. 2017, FRACTAL ANALYSIS AS A TOOL FOR POMOLOGY STUDIES: CASE STUDY IN APPLE. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 224-233.

FUNGAL STRAINS IMPROVEMENT FOR XYLANASE OVER PRODUCTION THROUGH PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL MUTAGENESIS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1
Written by Aglaia BURLACU, Florentina ISRAEL-ROMING, Călina Petruța CORNEA

Xylanases have numerous applications in various fields, thus presenting an immense interest in studying. The sources for these enzymes include bacteria, fungi, yeast and others, the most important producers being fungi. The focus of this study was on enhancing the fungal strain ability to produce xylanase using random mutagenesis. Several mutants from Aspergillus brasiliensis and Penicillium digitatum were obtained through physical and chemical mutagenesis from strains previously selected as xylanase producers. The Petri plates with the fungal spores were exposed to UV light for physical mutagenesis at the distance of 10 cm and for 5-50 minutes. The chemical mutagenesis involved the use of Nmethyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and ethyl methane sulfonate, by adding in the Petri plates with the fungal spores 150 μg/ml mutagen (N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine or ethyl methane sulfonate). After both physical and chemical mutagenesis, several mutant strains were randomly selected and subjected to a qualitative and quantitative screening for their ability to produce xylanase. For the qualitative screening, the selected strains were cultivated on selective xylan agar medium with 0.8% oat spelt xylan as the only carbon source. The plates were analysed at every 24 h for the occurrence and evaluation of the hydrolysis area, using Congo red staining. Based on the measurements of the halo diameter, several strains were selected for a quantitative screening, using the DNS assay for reducing sugars to determine the xylanase activity. In order to determine the specific enzymatic activity, the protein assay was carried out. The comparison of the studied strains showed that there are differences concerning the production of xylanase between the mutant strains and the original ones.

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BURLACU A., ISRAEL-ROMING F., CORNEA C.P. 2017, FUNGAL STRAINS IMPROVEMENT FOR XYLANASE OVER PRODUCTION THROUGH PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL MUTAGENESIS. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 40-47.

GENETIC ANALYSIS OF SOME ROSES CULTIVARS APPROPRIATE FOR S-E ROMANIA CLIMATE USING PCR - ISSR TECHNOLOGY

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1
Written by Georgiana DUŢĂ-CORNESCU, Camelia-Ecaterina PAVLUSENCO, Daniela Maria POJOGA, Marius Eduard NEGULICI, Nicoleta CONSTANTIN, Alexandra SIMON-GRUIŢA

Current cultivated roses varieties were obtained through intensive cross-breeding between a limited number of species of genus Rosa (about 8 to 20 from 200 wild species) and for many of them there are no accurate information about their genealogy. The present study aims to determine the genetic diversity of 10 rose varieties, from Botanical Garden of Bucharest collection, which are not included in the official list of rose varieties from Romania, according ISTIS. Choosing these cultivars started from the need to identify rose varieties resistant to the climate in SE Romania with extended summer drought and winter frost. A number of 86 individuals were genotyped using PCR-ISSR technique. From a total of 23 tested ISSR primers, 11 were selected due to their capacity to produce informative band patterns. These primers generated 292 ISSR markers, with a mean of 26.54 bands/primer and a polymorphism percentage of 96.025%. The average values of polymorphic information content (PIC), resolving power (Rp) and marker index (MI) proved the discriminatory power of ISSR markers (i.e PIC varied between 0.22 and 0.43 and Rp between 7.81 and 17.2). Genetic diversity as revealed by Shannon index (I=0.45±0.0734), genetic differentiation index (GST=0.027) and estimate of gene flow (Nm=16.982) is relatively high. The AMOVA analysis showed that 67.36% of the total genetic variation resides within cultivars, which is similar with other shrub species. The UPGMA dendrogram built on ISSR markers grouped the 10 cultivars in two major clusters according with their origin and some of their phenotype characteristics. ISSR fingerprinting proved to be appropriated for the quantification of the level of genetic variation in the selected cultivars.

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DUŢĂ-CORNESCU G., PAVLUSENCO C.E., POJOGA D.M., NEGULICI M.E., CONSTANTIN N., SIMON-GRUIŢA A. 2017, GENETIC ANALYSIS OF SOME ROSES CULTIVARS APPROPRIATE FOR S-E ROMANIA CLIMATE USING PCR - ISSR TECHNOLOGY. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 69-74.

GRAIN LEGUMES - MAIN SOURCE OF VEGETAL PROTEINS FOR EUROPEAN CONSUMPTION

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1
Written by Gheorghe Valentin ROMAN, Lenuta Iuliana EPURE, Maria TOADER, Antonio-Romeo LOMBARDI

Grain legumes (pulses) are currently grown on 1.8% of the EU's arable land (compared to 4.7% in 1961) and as a result, Europe is dependent on protein imports totalling annually about 20 mil. tons of soybean meals and 12 mil. tons of soybean grains. Only about 2.5% of soybean meal consumed is produced in the EU. This imbalance between production and consumption creates economic and trade problems; in addition, imported soybean is mostly GM, which is not accepted by many European consumers. Since 2013, the Common Agricultural Policy included as a priority increasing the production of vegetal proteins by subsidies to grain legumes crops (including soybean non-GM), forage crops (alfalfa, clover) and oil crops (rapeseed, sunflower). In this framework encompasses the initiative Donau Soja (Danube Soya), which promotes the cultivation of conventional soybean in the Danube region and the development of yields processing and valorisation network. Romania falls well into these trends by traditions in cultivating soybean (over 500 thou ha before 1990), the favourability of natural conditions, the existence of biological material adapted to the specific natural conditions (varieties developed in ARDS Turda and NARDI Fundulea). Romanian farmers are interested in expanding soybean cultivation for ameliorating soil fertility and as a very good previous crop for winter cereals, but by providing an efficient weeds control, supplying water by irrigation and treating the seeds with bacterial preparations. Also, taking soybean harvest in the food networks involves a very rigorous quality control in terms of protein content and of avoiding contamination by GMOs. It is estimated that it can reach 700 thou ha with soybean, which can produce about 0.51 mil. tons proteins, which would add about 0.40 mil. tons of sunflower proteins (from 800 thou ha) and about 0.25 mil. tons of rapeseed proteins (from 500 thou ha).

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ROMAN Gh.V., EPURE L.I., TOADER M., LOMBARDI A.R. 2016, GRAIN LEGUMES - MAIN SOURCE OF VEGETAL PROTEINS FOR EUROPEAN CONSUMPTION. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 178-183.

GROWTH/SURVIVAL OF SOME FUNCTIONAL LACTIC ACID BACTERIA UNDER DIFFERENT STRESS CONDITIONS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 2
Written by Silvia-Simona GROSU-TUDOR, Iulia-Roxana ȘTEFAN, Medana ZAMFIR

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used as starter cultures in food industry must survive under several stress conditions, including low pH, low water activity, high and low temperatures, oxidative stress, starvation and competition with other species. Also, a high resistance to low pH values and in the presence of bile salts is necessary for probiotic strains, in order to survive in the stomach and intestine, or even to compete with other bacterial groups in this environment and to colonize the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of the host. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the growth/survival of 19 LAB strains with biotechnological applications (production of bacteriocins, exopolysaccharides, S-layer proteins) under different stress conditions. The strains were investigated for tolerance to acidity (pH 2.0, 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5), bile salts (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.5%), different temperatures (15°C, 20°C, 28°C, 37°C, 42°C, 47°C, and 50°C), and different concentrations of NaCl (1%, 3%, 5%, and 7%). All 19 tested strains grew well at 28°C and 37°C, with a viability between 1010-1014 CFU/ml. Three strains grew well at 50°C reaching a viability of 108-109 CFU/ml. Four strains were resistant to pH 3.5 and 4.5, after 24 h of incubation reaching a viability of 1010 CFU/ml and 1014 CFU/ml, respectively. After 3 h of exposure to pH 2.0, two strains, namely Lb. brevis FV403 and Lb. brevis FV530, maintained a viability of 102-103 CFU/ml. Concerning the bile salt resistance, all tested strains showed a high resistance to a concentration of 0.3% (w/v), reaching a cell viability of 107-109 CFU/ml after 24 h of incubation. After 3 h of exposure to 0.5% (w/v) of bile salts, the viability of Lb. brevis FV530 was about 1010 CFU/ml. Six of the selected strains had a high resistance to NaCl (up to 7%) reaching a viability of 109 CFU/ml after 48 h of incubation.

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GROSU-TUDOR S.S., ȘTEFAN I.R., ZAMFIR M. 2016, GROWTH/SURVIVAL OF SOME FUNCTIONAL LACTIC ACID BACTERIA UNDER DIFFERENT STRESS CONDITIONS. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 2, ISSN 2285-5718, 71-78.

HAS THE LEADER PROGRAMME BEEN EFFECTIVE IN PROMOTING LOCAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT? AN EVALUATION ON TWO ROMANIAN REGIONS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1
Written by Cristina Bianca POCOL, Călin MOLDOVAN-TESELIOS, Daniele CAVICCHIOLI, Mirela Irina CORDEA

The aim of the research was to evaluate the effects of projects developed by Local Action Groups (LAGs) on the economic development of rural areas in two development regions of Romania: North-West and North-East. Using Propensity Score Matching (PSM) we have compared communes belonging and not belonging to a LAG having similar characteristics, observing their differences in terms of outcome variables (turnover, number and employees in non-agricultural firms). Results show that there is not a statistically significant difference in change (2011-2015) of outcome variables between the two groups, both in the whole sample and in each region. This points to a lack of effectiveness of LAGs projects in promoting non-agricultural rural development. Furthermore, according to regression results, the outcome indicators are significantly affected by the degree of socio-economic development at the beginning of the examined period.

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POCOL C.B., MOLDOVAN-TESELIOS C., CAVICCHIOLI D., CORDEA M.I. 2017, HAS THE LEADER PROGRAMME BEEN EFFECTIVE IN PROMOTING LOCAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT? AN EVALUATION ON TWO ROMANIAN REGIONS. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 201-211.

HUMAN AMNIOTIC MEMBRANE TRANSPLANTATION IN THE TREATMENT OF FELINE CORNEAL SEQUESTRUM: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1
Written by Lia ION, Iuliana IONASCU, Cárol GARCİA de JOZ, Irene CERRADA, Alin BIRTOIU, Eduardo HUGUET

Amniotic membrane transplantation is used in both human and veterinary ophthalmology for ocular surface reconstruction after certain ocular diseases in order to regain corneal transparency and to improve visual outcome. Feline corneal sequestrum is a disease unique to the cat, characterized by the presence of an area of corneal necrosis, brown coloured, sometimes accompanied by vascularization and edema, usually located in the center of the cornea. Depending on the stage of the disease, treatment can be medical or surgical. This pilot study aims to evaluate the clinical outcome after lamellar keratectomy and amniotic membrane transplantation in cases of feline corneal sequestrum. The study was conducted in the Opthalmology Department of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Bucharest and in Oftalmovet Private Practice in Valencia for a period of two years. During this time, six cats with corneal sequestrum underwent superficial keratectomy associated with human amniotic membrane transplantation fixed with OcuSeal Liquid Ocular BandageTM (Beaver Visitec). In all the cases, a third eyelid flap was used to protect the graft. Good corneal clarity and improved vision was obtained in all the cases. Amniotic membrane transplantation after lamellar keratectomy was an optimal choice for the treatment of corneal sequestrum in cats. There was no recurrence of the disease in our follow-up period (3-15 months).

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ION L., IONASCU I., GARCİA de JOZ C., CERRADA I., BIRTOIU A., HUGUET E. 2016, HUMAN AMNIOTIC MEMBRANE TRANSPLANTATION IN THE TREATMENT OF FELINE CORNEAL SEQUESTRUM: PRELIMINARY RESULTS. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 91-98.

IMPACT OF COLLECTING MUSHROOMS FROM THE SPONTANEOUS FLORA ON FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN ROMANIA

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1
Written by Diana VASILE, Lucian DINCĂ, Cristian Mihai ENESCU

Mushrooms from spontaneous flora are among the most important non-wood forest products, more than 3000 species being consumed worldwide and more than 100 being of great importance in medicine, fighting against several diseases. In Romania, there is a long tradition of collecting/picking edible mushrooms from the spontaneous flora, but concrete data regarding the impact of mushrooms collecting on forest ecosystems is lacking. For estimating the quantities of edible mushrooms that could be harvest from spontaneous forest flora managed by the National Forest Administration in 2016, the following were taken into account: the reports recently done by the specialists of National Institute for Research and Development in Forestry “Marin Drăcea”-INCDS; the database of INCDS regarding the non-wood forest products; the current forest fund administrated by the National Forest Administration; the information contained in scientific papers or resulted from research projects. The largest amounts of edible mushrooms that are harvested from the Forestry Departments managed by National Forest Administration belong to the following species: Boletus sp., Cantharellus cibarius Fr. (chanterelle) and Armillaria mellea (Vahl) P. Kumm. (honey fungus). The most significant impact of mushrooms collecting occurs in the terrestrial flora and fauna. In order to assure a low impact on environment, the activity of harvesting edible mushrooms will have to respect the principle of sustainable management of forestry resources, i.e. the harvesting should be made so as not to disturb the regenerative capacity and biodiversity especially in the case of endangered species or in fragile ecosystems. If the activity of harvesting edible mushrooms is supervised by the forest authorities who have experience in organizing such activities and in compliance with all the recommendations, there is no possibility of occurrence of situations with negative effects on biodiversity or on the abundance of mushroom species.

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VASILE D., DINCĂ L., ENESCU C.M. 2017, IMPACT OF COLLECTING MUSHROOMS FROM THE SPONTANEOUS FLORA ON FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN ROMANIA. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 268-275.

Implications of mycotoxins in livestock feeds

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1
Written by Muzaffer DENLI

The contamination of foods and feeds is a significant problem in worldwide. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi, particularly by many species of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Claviceps and Alternaria in many agricultural crops, especially in cereals and most oilseeds. Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearelenone and fumonisins are the mycotoxins of greatest agro-economic importance. Mycotoxins have various acute and chronic effects on animals (especially monogastrics) depending on species and susceptibility of an animal within a species. The most applied method to prevent mycotoxicosis in animals involves the addition to the diet of additives with the ability to bind or metabolize mycotoxin in the gastrointestinal digesta, aluminosilicates, activated charcoal, yeast and several polymers have been tested regarding the adsorption of mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract of different species. The efficiency of mycotoxin binders, however, differs considerably depending mainly on the chemical structure of both the adsorbent and the toxin. This review describes the most implications of mycotoxins in livestock feeds

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Muzaffer DENLI 2015, Implications of mycotoxins in livestock feeds. Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1, PRINT ISSN 2285-5718, 52-55.

Industrial wastewater treatment plant sound impact

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 2
Written by Sebastian MUSTATA, Dragos DRACEA, Augustina TRONAC

Interlocking residential, administrative and production areas in urban development is accompanied by a decrease in population comfort caused by industry sound pollution. Verification of compliance of acoustic pressure and noise limits is done by direct measurements. This approach is used for assessing the noise level of a treatment plant of industrial wastewater resulting from a meat processing factory, having a technological chain comprising mechanical, chemical and biological phases. The interpretation of recorded values leads to a solution proposal aimedr to preserve the operation staff health and to improve the acoustic conditions of the surrounding areas.

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Sebastian MUSTATA, Dragos DRACEA, Augustina TRONAC 2014, Industrial wastewater treatment plant sound impact. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 2, ISSN 2285-5718, 44-48.


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