GRAIN LEGUMES - MAIN SOURCE OF VEGETAL PROTEINS FOR EUROPEAN CONSUMPTION

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1
Written by Gheorghe Valentin ROMAN, Lenuta Iuliana EPURE, Maria TOADER, Antonio-Romeo LOMBARDI

Grain legumes (pulses) are currently grown on 1.8% of the EU's arable land (compared to 4.7% in 1961) and as a result, Europe is dependent on protein imports totalling annually about 20 mil. tons of soybean meals and 12 mil. tons of soybean grains. Only about 2.5% of soybean meal consumed is produced in the EU. This imbalance between production and consumption creates economic and trade problems; in addition, imported soybean is mostly GM, which is not accepted by many European consumers. Since 2013, the Common Agricultural Policy included as a priority increasing the production of vegetal proteins by subsidies to grain legumes crops (including soybean non-GM), forage crops (alfalfa, clover) and oil crops (rapeseed, sunflower). In this framework encompasses the initiative Donau Soja (Danube Soya), which promotes the cultivation of conventional soybean in the Danube region and the development of yields processing and valorisation network. Romania falls well into these trends by traditions in cultivating soybean (over 500 thou ha before 1990), the favourability of natural conditions, the existence of biological material adapted to the specific natural conditions (varieties developed in ARDS Turda and NARDI Fundulea). Romanian farmers are interested in expanding soybean cultivation for ameliorating soil fertility and as a very good previous crop for winter cereals, but by providing an efficient weeds control, supplying water by irrigation and treating the seeds with bacterial preparations. Also, taking soybean harvest in the food networks involves a very rigorous quality control in terms of protein content and of avoiding contamination by GMOs. It is estimated that it can reach 700 thou ha with soybean, which can produce about 0.51 mil. tons proteins, which would add about 0.40 mil. tons of sunflower proteins (from 800 thou ha) and about 0.25 mil. tons of rapeseed proteins (from 500 thou ha).

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ROMAN Gh.V., EPURE L.I., TOADER M., LOMBARDI A.R. 2016, GRAIN LEGUMES - MAIN SOURCE OF VEGETAL PROTEINS FOR EUROPEAN CONSUMPTION. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 178-183.

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM SUNFLOWER CULTIVATION FOR BIOFUELS AND BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 2
Written by Irina CALCIU, Olga VIZITIU, Cătălin SIMOTA

Use of renewable energy resources is regulated by EU Directive 2009/28/CE from April 23rd 2009. The reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions coming from the biofuels and bioliquids use is calculated according to the Article 19 of the Directive and is based on typical and default values. In this study the coefficients for sunflower crop (typical emissions of greenhouse gas -g CO2 ech MJ-1) were evaluated at NUTS3 level (county) taking into account the pedoclimatic and technological conditions of Romania. The evaluation of greenhouse gas emissions and of energy consumptions within the whole production chain of biofuels and biodiesel was done by using Carbon Calculator – version 1.1 designed by E4Tech for Renewable Fuels Agency from UK. This program was used for different crop production levels: multiannual national average for the period of 1991-2014 provided by National Institute of Statistics; the lower level of crop production defined as difference between multiannual average and standard deviation of crop production years; the upper level of the crop production defined as sum between multiannual average and standard deviation of crop production years; crop production for which the default values of crop coefficients are given in Annex V/part D. The aggregation of information on greenhouse gas emissions (g CO2 ech MJ-1) at NUTS3 level corresponding to the fourth levels of crop production was done as an average of emissions from each soil-terrain unit under arable land use. The E4Tech model was then used for evaluation of spatial distribution of emissions. It was used the dependence between typical greenhouse gas emissions specific to sunflower crop and crop yield (optimum technology: multiannual average, multiannual average ± standard deviation; actual technology: multiannual average). The aggregation of these results at NUTS3 level showed that the default values for typical emissions included in the Directive are not reached even in case of optimum technology applied in favorable years for sunflower cultivation (average production + standard deviation). The greenhouse gas emissions had the lowest values in Braila, Ialomita and Calarasi counties. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions within the whole chain of biofuels and biodiesel production from sunflower cultivation, which were evaluated based on multiannual national average for the period of 1991-2014 (actual technology) were 35% in favorable years and 11% in unfavorable years. These values are lower than the typical and default values from Annex V/part D from EU Directive.

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CALCIU I., VIZITIU O., SIMOTA C. 2017, GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM SUNFLOWER CULTIVATION FOR BIOFUELS AND BIODIESEL PRODUCTION. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 2, ISSN 2285-5718, 27-32.

GROWTH/SURVIVAL OF SOME FUNCTIONAL LACTIC ACID BACTERIA UNDER DIFFERENT STRESS CONDITIONS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 2
Written by Silvia-Simona GROSU-TUDOR, Iulia-Roxana ȘTEFAN, Medana ZAMFIR

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used as starter cultures in food industry must survive under several stress conditions, including low pH, low water activity, high and low temperatures, oxidative stress, starvation and competition with other species. Also, a high resistance to low pH values and in the presence of bile salts is necessary for probiotic strains, in order to survive in the stomach and intestine, or even to compete with other bacterial groups in this environment and to colonize the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of the host. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the growth/survival of 19 LAB strains with biotechnological applications (production of bacteriocins, exopolysaccharides, S-layer proteins) under different stress conditions. The strains were investigated for tolerance to acidity (pH 2.0, 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5), bile salts (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.5%), different temperatures (15°C, 20°C, 28°C, 37°C, 42°C, 47°C, and 50°C), and different concentrations of NaCl (1%, 3%, 5%, and 7%). All 19 tested strains grew well at 28°C and 37°C, with a viability between 1010-1014 CFU/ml. Three strains grew well at 50°C reaching a viability of 108-109 CFU/ml. Four strains were resistant to pH 3.5 and 4.5, after 24 h of incubation reaching a viability of 1010 CFU/ml and 1014 CFU/ml, respectively. After 3 h of exposure to pH 2.0, two strains, namely Lb. brevis FV403 and Lb. brevis FV530, maintained a viability of 102-103 CFU/ml. Concerning the bile salt resistance, all tested strains showed a high resistance to a concentration of 0.3% (w/v), reaching a cell viability of 107-109 CFU/ml after 24 h of incubation. After 3 h of exposure to 0.5% (w/v) of bile salts, the viability of Lb. brevis FV530 was about 1010 CFU/ml. Six of the selected strains had a high resistance to NaCl (up to 7%) reaching a viability of 109 CFU/ml after 48 h of incubation.

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GROSU-TUDOR S.S., ȘTEFAN I.R., ZAMFIR M. 2016, GROWTH/SURVIVAL OF SOME FUNCTIONAL LACTIC ACID BACTERIA UNDER DIFFERENT STRESS CONDITIONS. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 2, ISSN 2285-5718, 71-78.

HAS THE LEADER PROGRAMME BEEN EFFECTIVE IN PROMOTING LOCAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT? AN EVALUATION ON TWO ROMANIAN REGIONS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1
Written by Cristina Bianca POCOL, Călin MOLDOVAN-TESELIOS, Daniele CAVICCHIOLI, Mirela Irina CORDEA

The aim of the research was to evaluate the effects of projects developed by Local Action Groups (LAGs) on the economic development of rural areas in two development regions of Romania: North-West and North-East. Using Propensity Score Matching (PSM) we have compared communes belonging and not belonging to a LAG having similar characteristics, observing their differences in terms of outcome variables (turnover, number and employees in non-agricultural firms). Results show that there is not a statistically significant difference in change (2011-2015) of outcome variables between the two groups, both in the whole sample and in each region. This points to a lack of effectiveness of LAGs projects in promoting non-agricultural rural development. Furthermore, according to regression results, the outcome indicators are significantly affected by the degree of socio-economic development at the beginning of the examined period.

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POCOL C.B., MOLDOVAN-TESELIOS C., CAVICCHIOLI D., CORDEA M.I. 2017, HAS THE LEADER PROGRAMME BEEN EFFECTIVE IN PROMOTING LOCAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT? AN EVALUATION ON TWO ROMANIAN REGIONS. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 201-211.

HUMAN AMNIOTIC MEMBRANE TRANSPLANTATION IN THE TREATMENT OF FELINE CORNEAL SEQUESTRUM: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1
Written by Lia ION, Iuliana IONASCU, Cárol GARCİA de JOZ, Irene CERRADA, Alin BIRTOIU, Eduardo HUGUET

Amniotic membrane transplantation is used in both human and veterinary ophthalmology for ocular surface reconstruction after certain ocular diseases in order to regain corneal transparency and to improve visual outcome. Feline corneal sequestrum is a disease unique to the cat, characterized by the presence of an area of corneal necrosis, brown coloured, sometimes accompanied by vascularization and edema, usually located in the center of the cornea. Depending on the stage of the disease, treatment can be medical or surgical. This pilot study aims to evaluate the clinical outcome after lamellar keratectomy and amniotic membrane transplantation in cases of feline corneal sequestrum. The study was conducted in the Opthalmology Department of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Bucharest and in Oftalmovet Private Practice in Valencia for a period of two years. During this time, six cats with corneal sequestrum underwent superficial keratectomy associated with human amniotic membrane transplantation fixed with OcuSeal Liquid Ocular BandageTM (Beaver Visitec). In all the cases, a third eyelid flap was used to protect the graft. Good corneal clarity and improved vision was obtained in all the cases. Amniotic membrane transplantation after lamellar keratectomy was an optimal choice for the treatment of corneal sequestrum in cats. There was no recurrence of the disease in our follow-up period (3-15 months).

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ION L., IONASCU I., GARCİA de JOZ C., CERRADA I., BIRTOIU A., HUGUET E. 2016, HUMAN AMNIOTIC MEMBRANE TRANSPLANTATION IN THE TREATMENT OF FELINE CORNEAL SEQUESTRUM: PRELIMINARY RESULTS. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 91-98.

HYDRAULIC MODELS FOR THE INFILTRATIONS THROUGH A GUARD LEVEE DYKE DURING A HIGH FLOOD

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 2
Written by Esmeralda CHIORESCU, Dan CHIORESCU, Feodor FILIPOV

In the technical literature, based on certain simplifying hypotheses, there were presented explicit analytical expressions for the curves of infiltration through earth massifs, under non-permanent conditions. We found that the accuracy of the models that lead to the determination of such curves of infiltration is strongly dependent on the accuracy of approximating the flood hydrographs with analytical functions. From authors experience in the area of flood waves mitigation, remarkable results were obtained when the flood hydrographs were approximated with cubic spline functions. Therefore we intended to extend this type of approximation to the hydraulic models that determine the curves of infiltration through massive chunks of earth. For the purpose of developing such hydraulic models, more easily exploitable in expedite applications, we appealed also to flood hydrograph approximations with unique polynomial functions of 1st and 3rd degree. After reviewing the methodologies used to develop the hydraulic models from recent technical literature, in a consistent manner, we designed an original general algorithm - applicable to any approximating analytical function for flood hydrographs. For validation, this new algorithm was first tested on the cases already treated in topical works - which led to similar results. Then, with the same new algorithm, have been addressed also the new proposed issues. The results for all representative specific cases considered, were consistent with those obtained by numerical simulation, using appropriate software and based on hydrodynamic models well established in the field

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CHIORESCU E., CHIORESCU D., FILIPOV F. 2017, HYDRAULIC MODELS FOR THE INFILTRATIONS THROUGH A GUARD LEVEE DYKE DURING A HIGH FLOOD. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 2, ISSN 2285-5718, 58-66.

IMPACT OF ADVISORY AND CONSULTANCY WORK OVER THE PROJECT-BASED DEVELOPMENT CHOICES OF A RURAL TERRITORY

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 2
Written by Cosmin SĂLĂȘAN, Sebastian MOISA, Isidora RADULOV

The paper targets the observations over the impact of consultancy and advisory work performed at the scale of a rural micro-region in terms of present choices for the future development by implementation of different possible projects, mostly with public cofinancing. The choice of area and previous activities leads to one Local Action Group active in the previous programming period with specific knowledge and accumulated experience. The preparation for the current programming period creates the opportunity to analyse the directions and the volumes of the future intentions of projects in a sort of project pipelining during the information and animation meetings in the future Local Action Group. The observations collected by a structured questionnaire are further analysed to extract the facts and findings related to different types of actions, investment levels and co-financing readiness. The findings are further compared to the respondents' profile, the earlier achievements and the current reality and realism in order to understand the impact of the specific inputs from consultancy during the animation sessions. The consultancy and the content delivery of the advisory sessions are comparable for the purpose of this analysis as both preparation phases for the two programming periods were covered by the same consultant. The findings lead to solid grounds for the conclusions linking the content and the consultancy interventions to the realistic options of the local actors closely correlated to the vocation of the rural micro-region and the logic of earlier interventions by projects.

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SĂLĂȘAN C., MOISA S., RADULOV I. 2017, IMPACT OF ADVISORY AND CONSULTANCY WORK OVER THE PROJECT-BASED DEVELOPMENT CHOICES OF A RURAL TERRITORY. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 2, ISSN 2285-5718, 172-177.

IMPACT OF COLLECTING MUSHROOMS FROM THE SPONTANEOUS FLORA ON FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN ROMANIA

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1
Written by Diana VASILE, Lucian DINCĂ, Cristian Mihai ENESCU

Mushrooms from spontaneous flora are among the most important non-wood forest products, more than 3000 species being consumed worldwide and more than 100 being of great importance in medicine, fighting against several diseases. In Romania, there is a long tradition of collecting/picking edible mushrooms from the spontaneous flora, but concrete data regarding the impact of mushrooms collecting on forest ecosystems is lacking. For estimating the quantities of edible mushrooms that could be harvest from spontaneous forest flora managed by the National Forest Administration in 2016, the following were taken into account: the reports recently done by the specialists of National Institute for Research and Development in Forestry “Marin Drăcea”-INCDS; the database of INCDS regarding the non-wood forest products; the current forest fund administrated by the National Forest Administration; the information contained in scientific papers or resulted from research projects. The largest amounts of edible mushrooms that are harvested from the Forestry Departments managed by National Forest Administration belong to the following species: Boletus sp., Cantharellus cibarius Fr. (chanterelle) and Armillaria mellea (Vahl) P. Kumm. (honey fungus). The most significant impact of mushrooms collecting occurs in the terrestrial flora and fauna. In order to assure a low impact on environment, the activity of harvesting edible mushrooms will have to respect the principle of sustainable management of forestry resources, i.e. the harvesting should be made so as not to disturb the regenerative capacity and biodiversity especially in the case of endangered species or in fragile ecosystems. If the activity of harvesting edible mushrooms is supervised by the forest authorities who have experience in organizing such activities and in compliance with all the recommendations, there is no possibility of occurrence of situations with negative effects on biodiversity or on the abundance of mushroom species.

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VASILE D., DINCĂ L., ENESCU C.M. 2017, IMPACT OF COLLECTING MUSHROOMS FROM THE SPONTANEOUS FLORA ON FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN ROMANIA. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 268-275.

IMPACT OF KAOLIN PARTICLE FILM ON LIGHT EXTINCTION COEFFICIENT AND RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY OF PISTACHIO (Pistachia vera)

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 2
Written by Safieh VATANDOOST, Gholamhossein DAVARYNEJAD, Ali TEHRANIFAR

Kaolin application became a common treatment in orchards against different pests like psyllid. After kaolin application a thick powdery layer covers both sides of each leaf. It is a major concern that how much this layer affect light absorbance of leaves and net plant production, although light interception can be altered by changing spacing, tree height, tree shape and/or row orientation. In order to investigate the effect of kaolin spray on light extinction coefficient and radiation use efficiency of pistachio, an experiment conducted on a commercial orchard in khorasan razavi province. Three concentrations (0%, 3% and 6%) of processed Kaolin particle film sprayed on four varieties (Ohadi, Sepid, Kalehghoochi and Akbari) of pistachio as a liquid suspension, which evaporates, leaving white colour powdery film on the surfaces of leaves, stems and fruits. Treatments arranged in a randomized block design with 3 replications. Imaging softwares used to extract canopy structure and light transmission factor. In this case that we could not measure total plant production, only dried fruit production of each tree was used to estimate RUE (Radiation Use Efficiency). The results showed that kaolin film decreased single-leaf light absorbance and increased total light absorbance of pistachio tree. K, the Light extinction coefficient was not significantly different in different concentration of kaolin treatments.

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VATANDOOST S., DAVARYNEJAD G., TEHRANIFAR A. 2017, IMPACT OF KAOLIN PARTICLE FILM ON LIGHT EXTINCTION COEFFICIENT AND RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY OF PISTACHIO (Pistachia vera). AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 2, ISSN 2285-5718, 214-218.

Implications of mycotoxins in livestock feeds

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1
Written by Muzaffer DENLI

The contamination of foods and feeds is a significant problem in worldwide. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi, particularly by many species of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Claviceps and Alternaria in many agricultural crops, especially in cereals and most oilseeds. Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearelenone and fumonisins are the mycotoxins of greatest agro-economic importance. Mycotoxins have various acute and chronic effects on animals (especially monogastrics) depending on species and susceptibility of an animal within a species. The most applied method to prevent mycotoxicosis in animals involves the addition to the diet of additives with the ability to bind or metabolize mycotoxin in the gastrointestinal digesta, aluminosilicates, activated charcoal, yeast and several polymers have been tested regarding the adsorption of mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract of different species. The efficiency of mycotoxin binders, however, differs considerably depending mainly on the chemical structure of both the adsorbent and the toxin. This review describes the most implications of mycotoxins in livestock feeds

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Muzaffer DENLI 2015, Implications of mycotoxins in livestock feeds. Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1, PRINT ISSN 2285-5718, 52-55.


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