Influence of sowing time on the expression of barley and wheat plants physiology

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 2
Written by Nicolae IONESCU, Aurelian PENESCU, Sorin Gabriel IONESCU

Tipically, in our autumn wheat and barley have sown in a relatively wide range, due to variuos causes: climate (Slater, 1976), management etc. To clarify what would be the most appropriate range for the plants to know the physiology of the most favorable, decadal have experienced many moments of sowing several years. Period was thus between Sept. 10 and Nov. 1 (6 points sowing). Plants were studied by several indices for physiology expression (Stoy, 1969) i.e. leaf area index (LAI), the photosynthetic potential by leaf area duration (LAD), net assimilation rate (NAR) and grain yield. Among these features were found match, but on the contrary, some are even contradictory. Thus, if the maximum LAI of wheat was obtained from Oct. 1 (9.2 m2 leaf/m2 soil), the maximum photosynthetic potential was still to Oct. 1 (1.48 km2 leaf x day), and maximum net assimilation rate was obtained in Oct. 10 (6.63 g d.m./m2/day). LAI of barley was Oct. 1 (7.4 m2 leaf/m2 soil), maximum LAD Sep. 20 (1.11 km2 leaf x day), and maximum NAR Oct. 10 (7.05 g d.m./m2/day). In these conditions, the maximum grain production was formed for wheat in Oct. 1 with an extension until Oct. 20. Winter barley was maximum in Oct. 1 with an extension from Sept. 20 until Oct. 10.

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Cropotova J., Popel S., Colesnicenco A. 2014, Influence of sowing time on the expression of barley and wheat plants physiology. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 3, Number 2, ISSN 2285-5718, 39-43.

INPUT USAGE AND PROBLEMS IN GREEN BEAN PRODUCTION: A CASE OF BURDUR PROVINCE, TURKEY

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1
Written by Mevlüt GÜL, Halil PARLAK

The production of green beans increased by 6.5 times from 3,106 tons in 1991 to 20,199 tons in 2015 in Burdur. In this study, it was aimed to reveal the use of inputs and problems of farmers who produce green beans in Burdur province. The study was carried out in the central district of the province of Burdur, where the production of green beans was the most intensive. Stratified sampling method was applied and the number of samples according to this method was determined as 112 farmers. Data were obtained by the face-to-face survey method. Sales quantities of farmers in the region varied depending on the cultivation area and yield of green bean. It was found that the use of unit labour in the unit area was 251.72 MLU hours in the production of green beans. Machine power usage was calculated as 2.18 hours per decares. The amount of seed used was 8.20 kilograms. The most important criterion in the preference of green bean cultivation was the high possibility of irrigation and productivity in the region. Sale of green beans starts at the end of July and lasts until the 15th of September. The prices of green beans were largely determined by the companies. Farmers sell their products wholesaler-trader. It can be said that the cultivation of green bean cultivation will continue through the factors such as the suitability of climate conditions, irrigation opportunities in the region, high yields and inadequate supply. However, the presence of a single collection center for the sale of products in the region is perceived as a threat. It can be stated that the producer's activity in the market may be more prominent with the establishment of the producer association and the development of organizational awareness in green bean growers in the region.

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GÜL M., PARLAK H. 2017, INPUT USAGE AND PROBLEMS IN GREEN BEAN PRODUCTION: A CASE OF BURDUR PROVINCE, TURKEY. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 133-140.

IRRIGATION FACILITIES, PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS CONCERNING PISTACHIO GROWING IN SIIRT REGION

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1
Written by Yusuf AYDIN, Burak SALTUK, Atılgan ATILGAN, Ali YÜCEL, Koray ÖZRENK

Growing of Siirt type of pistachio has a significant potential in the agriculture of Siirt province. As a result of the studies on this issue performed by public and legal institutions in recent years, while about 2000 tons of products were taken from the area in 4545.3 ha in 2002, these values reached about 11.000 tons of products in 25.000 ha by the end of 2014. Considering the climatic conditions of the region, the fact that summer is very hot and irregularity in the precipitation regime further increase the importance of irrigation and make it necessary for cultural practices in farming. However, pistachio orchards are not irrigated or tried to be contented with a little water due to the reasons such as the topographical structure of the area where farming is performed, irrigation water constraints, and any other reasons. The questionnaire study was carried out to determine the local farmers' tendencies on Siirt pistachio irrigation, problems faced, and the solution offers. For this purpose, the questionnaire form consisting of 40 questions was prepared, and data were collected using the Simple Random Sampling method. By this method, questionnaires were filled in by making face to face interviews with 177 farmers in 73 villages of 7 districts where farming is intensively performed. The obtained data were analyzed using MINITAB 16 statistical program. As a result of the statistical analyses, an attempt to contribute to the solution of the problems was made by developing solutions to identified problems.

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AYDIN Y., SALTUK B., ATILGAN A., YÜCEL A., ÖZRENK K. 2016, IRRIGATION FACILITIES, PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS CONCERNING PISTACHIO GROWING IN SIIRT REGION. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 21-30.

IS THERE A NITROGEN DEFICIT IN ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE?

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1
Written by Alena SCHMIDT, Dragoș SMEDESCU, Gabriele MACK, Gina FÎNTÎNERU

Nitrogen (N) is a key nutrient in agriculture production. While most of the European countries have a highly positive N gross balance (Leip et al., 2011; EUROSTAT, 2017), Romania had a negative gross N balance in the year 2013. A positive N balance indicates the risk of pollution by nitrate (N03-), ammonia (NH4+) and nitrous oxide (N20). In contrast, a negative N balance might show the risk of soil depletion. We estimated an N soil surface balance and assessed the potential uncertainties in the data as well as the relation between N inputs and N outputs. The Romanian agriculture has a high N use efficiency of 0.99. Over the last 20 years we observed a slightly positive N soil surface balance of 0.1 kg per ha. The average N inputs accounted for around 40 kg N per ha. The fluctuation of the N soil surface balance between the years is high and mainly caused by the high fluctuation of N outputs, as due to weather fluctuations and plant pest, the yield does not achieve its’ potential yield. However, the method of soil surface balance has some drawbacks, as farm internal fluxes are separated. Therefore, the calculation of an N farm gate balance would add some benefits as it is regarded as more precise due to the consideration of animal production.

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SCHMIDT A., SMEDESCU D., MACK G., FÎNTÎNERU G. 2017, IS THERE A NITROGEN DEFICIT IN ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE?. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 243-248.

Linguatula serrata (PENTASTOMIDA: LINGUATULIDAE) INFECTION IN DOG, ROMANIA: A CASE REPORT

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 2
Written by Mariana IONIŢĂ, Ioan Liviu MITREA

Linguatula serrata (Pentastomida: order Porocephalida, family Linguatulidae) is a cosmopolitan parasite inhabiting as adults the nasal passages and frontal sinuses of wild and domestic canids (dogs, foxes), which serve as definitive hosts. Cattle, sheep, goats, camels, rabbits, and other animals serve as intermediate hosts, in which fully developed nymphs, the parasitic stage infective for carnivores, are found encysted mainly in the mesenteric lymph nodes, lungs, liver, or serous membranes. Although man is accidental/aberrant host, the reports of human infection with this parasite, as visceral or nasopharyngeal (“Halzoun” or “Marrara syndrome”) linguatulosis is not uncommon, particularly in the Middle East where high infection rates are registered. Here we report a case of Linguatula serrata infection in a dog rescued from a suburban area, in southern Romania. The dog was an approximately 6- months-old male of mixed breed which had a history of free-roaming life and which had been rescued by the dog owner in late November, 2012. Several months later, on March 2013, about few days after a treatment with a macrocylic lactone (ivermectine), the dog had expelled by sneezing several worm-like parasites. The parasite specimens were morphologically identified as adults of L. serrata. The epidemiological aspects of linguatulosis and potential risks of public health and veterinary concern are discussed.

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IONIŢĂ M., MITREA I.L. 2016, Linguatula serrata (PENTASTOMIDA: LINGUATULIDAE) INFECTION IN DOG, ROMANIA: A CASE REPORT. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 2, ISSN 2285-5718, 85-89.

Lycium barbarum L. JUICE - NATURAL SOURCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1
Written by Adrian ASĂNICĂ, Carmen MANOLE, Valerica TUDOR, Andreea DOBRE, Răzvan Ionuț TEODORESCU

The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantity of some phenolic compounds, free radical scavenging activity and antibacterial activity of goji berry fruits (Lycium barbarum L.) in order to highlight which of these biotypes fulfills the best nutraceutical qualities. Freshly harvested fruits of three goji berry biotypes ('Biotype 1(B1)’, Biotype 2’ (B2), and 'Biotype Ua’ (BUa) were smashed and the juice was subjected to analysis. The phenolic compouns were analyzed as follows: total phenolic content (TPC) expressed as g gallic acid equivalents (GAE), total flavonoid content (TFC) expressed as g of rutin equivalents (RE), and free radical scavenging activity expressed as inhibition % (I %). The evaluation of antibacterial activity consisted of using Gram positive and negative bacteria based on the standard agar disk diffusion method. With regard to the TPC, all analysed juices have revealed 'Biotype BUa’ with a maximum content of 8.95 mM ± 0.48 GAE / ml juice. Also, the same biotype recorded high levels of free radical inhibition rate of 40%. In terms of flavonoid content, 'Biotype 1’ highlighted the best results. With regard to the evaluation of antibacterial activity, all juices showed good results. The most susceptible to all three juices was S. aureus and the least, P. aeruginosa. The highest inhibitory activity was registered in the case of 'Biotype 1’ juice against E. coli, showing an average inhibition diameter of 1.84 ± 0.13 and 1.81 ± 0.20 cm.

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ASĂNICĂ A., MANOLE C., TUDOR V., DOBRE A., TEODORESCU R.I. 2016, Lycium barbarum L. JUICE - NATURAL SOURCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 15-20.

MACHINES FOR GATHERING AND UTILIZATION OF RESIDUAL BIOMASS FROM TOBACCO PRODUCTION

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1
Written by Georgi KOMITOV, Dimitar KEHAJOV

As biomass from the tobacco production can be regarded the stems of tobacco plants. They have huge market potential as a fuel, because of the available materials, that are not used (they are incinerated or buried into soil) and they have a high energy density. Developments in technique make it possible to use new technologies and perfection systems, that allow waste biomass from tobacco to become attractive and environmentally friendly energy source with high quality and minimal costs for utilization. In this paper is presented the technological capabilities for gathering, processing and utilization of residual biomass from the tobacco production. The machines for utilization of residual biomass from tobacco production are applicable in conditions of small and large farmers, who meet certain needs heating.

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KOMITOV G., KEHAJOV D. 2016, MACHINES FOR GATHERING AND UTILIZATION OF RESIDUAL BIOMASS FROM TOBACCO PRODUCTION. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 110-114.

Maize yield and its stability as affected by tillage and crop residue management in the eastern Romanian Danube Plain

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1
Written by Alexandru COCIU, George Daniel CIZMAS

Rainfed crop management systems need to be optimized to provide more resilient options in order to cope with projected climatic scenarios which are forecasting a decrease in mean precipitation and more frequent extreme drought periods in the Eastern Romanian Danube Plain. This research, carried out in the period of 2011-2014, had as main purpose the determination of influence of tillage practices and residue management on rainfall use efficiency, maize yield and its stability, in order to evaluate the advantages of conservation agriculture (CA) in the time of stabilization of direct seeding effects, in comparison with traditional chisel tillage. The maize grain yields are presented for each crop management practices, as follows: (1) chisel tillage, retained crop residues being chopped and incorporated (ciz); (2) zero tillage, retained crop residue chopped and kept on the field in short flat condition (rvt); (3) zero tillage, crop residues kept on the field in short root-anchored condition (1/2rva), and (4) zero tillage, crop residues kept on the field in tall root-anchored condition (1/1rva). In 2012, a year with prolonged drought during vegetative growth, yield differences between zero tillage with short root-anchored residue retention (1/2rva) and chisel tillage with residue incorporation (ciz) were positive, up to 840 kg ha-1. In average over 2011-2014, conservation agriculture (CA) practices had a yield advantage over traditional chisel tillage practice. Zero tillage with residue retention used rainfall more efficiently so suggesting that it is a more resilient agronomic system than traditional (conventional) practices involving chisel tillage with residue incorporation.

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Alexandru COCIU, George Daniel CIZMAS 2015, Maize yield and its stability as affected by tillage and crop residue management in the eastern Romanian Danube Plain. Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1, PRINT ISSN 2285-5718, 46-51.

MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS. THE CASE OF ORGANIC FARM MANAGERS AND DISTRIBUTORS IN ATHENS’ ORGANIC OPEN FARMERS’ MARKETS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 2
Written by Ilias KOUFIOTIS, Nikolaos GYFTOPOULOS, Athanasios ANDREOU, Foivos PISIMISIS, Ilias TRAVLOS, Dimitrios BILALIS, George VLAHOS

Agriculture is one of the main axis of our national economy, but it can get further improvement not only in environmental level but also for the human resources who consist it. The main purpose of this study was to examine the behavior of organic farms managers. Specifically producers’ demographics were investigated through a questionnaire. The results of this study indicates that the majority (87.76%) of the organic farmer managers are male. As for the educational level, the majority of farmers were high school graduates and their age comes close to an average of approximately 43 years old. Furthermore the main source of income (83.67%) for organic farm managers proves to be agriculture. In addition we examine the farmers’ opinion on the necessity of subsidies and potential obstacles acquiring organic certification. The recorded percent of the organic farmers responded positively to the necessity of the subsidies is 42.9%. The study also presents the main given products in organic open farmers’ markets and the cultivation characteristics such as land, fertilization and distribution of the cultivated products. The majority of the products that sold in organic open markets are vegetables followed by olive oil and legumes. An important feature of this study, also linked to the attempt to convert the current mode of production into a closed farm management system, corresponds to the percentage of organic farm managers who rear farm animals in an organic way as well (32.65%).

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KOUFIOTIS I., GYFTOPOULOS N., ANDREOU A., PISIMISIS F., TRAVLOS I., BILALIS D., VLAHOS G. 2016, MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS. THE CASE OF ORGANIC FARM MANAGERS AND DISTRIBUTORS IN ATHENS’ ORGANIC OPEN FARMERS’ MARKETS. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 2, ISSN 2285-5718, 90-94.

Mathematical modalities of economic risk exposing in agricultural activity

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1
Written by Elena NIREAN

Each process, including economic, under certain conditions is conducted objectively. Manager, when it comes to economic processes can intervene to avert the processes, or to modify the conditions of their deployment. Economic processes, left to the discretion of supply and demand, generate a multitude of risks.
Risks (economic losses, misses, reduction of profit) in agricultural activities can be generated including due to insufficient implementation of programming methods. Currently, specialists in the application of economic and mathematical methods have developed a variety of methods and algorithms to reduce the risk coefficient in economic activities. A special importance for practitioners have presented mathematical methods accessible to specialists from other fields. Mathematical methods are based on the management of decisions (no the risks) and can contribute significantly to increasing productivity in agriculture and in other branches.

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Elena NIREAN 2015, Mathematical modalities of economic risk exposing in agricultural activity. Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1, PRINT ISSN 2285-5718, 117-122.


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