MICOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH MAIZE GRAINS DURING STORAGE PERIOD

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1
Written by Roxana DUDOIU, Stelica CRISTEA, Carmen LUPU, Daria POPA, Maria OPREA

Agricultural crops are vulnerable to infections by a wide spectrum of plant pathogens. In today’s marketplace, the increasing complexity and wide distribution chain represent enormous challenges for food production. The increased fungal infection and cross-contamination hazards are associated with the globalization of cereal trade (Waage et al., 2006). Cereals are one of the most important sources of food (FAO, 2002), which have contributed to human nutrition for millennia. However, cereals are exposed to numerous biotic and abiotic stress factors, from cultivation and throughout their life cycle to processing. The grain losses recorded during storage period on worldwide scale according to FAO estimations are between 5-10% of total production. In developing countries, due to reduced possibilities of implementing appropriate technologies, the reported damages during storage period may increase up to 30%. In 2015, the maize grains which are to be stored on an indefinite period of time is affected by the presence of various pests specific to warehouse ecosystem. The paper work presents a study regarding the occurrence and development of specific warehouse micromycetes during the first months of maize storage. Immediately after being deposited, it has been identified the specific micoflora for this period, respectively species of Alternaria, Trichoderma, Cladosporium, Aureobasidium, Cephalosporium, Aspergillus and Fusarium genera. Crop safety and security can be achieved by maintaining climatic factors in stored spaces, thus limiting the populations’ level of contaminating microorganisms.

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DUDOIU R., CRISTEA S., LUPU C., POPA D., OPREA M. 2016, MICOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH MAIZE GRAINS DURING STORAGE PERIOD. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 63-68.

Micropropagation and encapsulation useful combination for nurseries

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1
Written by Maurizio MICHELI, Alvaro STANDARDI

Encapsulation and micropropagation technologies were summarized and discussed as tools to exchange and to propagate valuable genotypes respectively. Each of these technologies shows advantages and problems for large and commercial diffusion whereas their integration represents a considerable innovation for the future nursery. In fact, uninodal microcuttings excised from in vitro proliferated axillary shoots or adventitious microshoots, both 3-4 mm long, can be encapsulated in a protective and nutritive covering after appropriates root induction treatments to obtain synthetic seeds. They are plant structures free from parasites, viruses included, and in several species able to convert in whole plantlets under in vitro or in vivo conditions after storage and transport, like the zygotic seeds. In other words the combination of the micropropagation with the encapsulation permits to reach the advantages of both technologies in one tool (the synthetic seed) characterized by high cloning efficiency, perfect sanitary plantlet conditions, reduced space requirements and size, resistance to handling, storability, and transport. Some problems have to be solved before large scale diffusion of this innovative combination which can represents a promising tool for the future nurseries

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Maurizio MICHELI, Alvaro STANDARDI 2015, Micropropagation and encapsulation: useful combination for nurseries. Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1, PRINT ISSN 2285-5718, 97-100.

MILD ALKALINE PRETREATMENT APPLIED IN THE BIOREFINERY OF SORGHUM BIOMASS FOR ETHANOL AND BIOGAS PRODUCTION

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 2
Written by Adrian TRULEA, Teodor VINTILĂ, Nicolae POPA, Georgeta POP

Production of bioenergy from lignocellulosic biomass has gained more and more interest over the past years. Due to its high content in carbohydrates, Sorghum bicolor is one of the best suited candidate for bioenergy production. However, the lignocellulosic nature of the sorghum biomass raises difficulties to the access of the microbial enzymes to cellulose and hemicellulose and inhibits processes such as hydrolysis, fermentation and anaerobic digestion of biomass to produce biofuels. In this study, the effects of thermo - chemical pretreatment (mild alkaline pretreatment), applied to improve biodegradability of three different hybrids of sorghum biomass were investigated. Alkaline pretreatment have positive effects on the production of lignocellulosic ethanol, increasing both cellulose and hemicellulose content while breaking the lignocellulosic bonds and reducing lignin content. The achieved methane yields ranged from 320 to 345 ln CH4/kg VS for the pretreated biomass, approximately 22% higher than the yields obtained from the untreated biomass. Important increase of methane production has been noticed as well in the case of anaerobic digestion of spent bagasse resulted after ethanol fermentation. Mild alkaline pretreatment is a suitable pretreatment method for conversion of sorghum biomass to ethanol and biogas.

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TRULEA A., VINTILĂ T., POPA N., POP G. 2016, MILD ALKALINE PRETREATMENT APPLIED IN THE BIOREFINERY OF SORGHUM BIOMASS FOR ETHANOL AND BIOGAS PRODUCTION. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 2, ISSN 2285-5718, 156-159.

MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION AND METABOLIC SCREENING OF SOME YEAST STRAINS FROM FOODS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1
Written by Ortansa CSUTAK, Emilia SABĂU, Diana PELINESCU, Viorica CORBU, Ioana CÎRPICI, Tatiana VASSU

Yeast strains from Saccharomyces, Kluyveromyces and Candida genera are present in most foods representing the basis for various industrial and biotechnological processes. The strains CMGB79 and CMGB159 were identified using PCR-RFLP on the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region as belonging to Candida parapsilosis, respectively, to Kluyveromyces marxianus. The primer OPA03 yield the highest degree of intraspecific RAPD polymorphism for the strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae CMGB59, CMGB121and ATCC201583. Lipase production was observed in the presence of Tween 80 in concentration of 0.1 and 0.5% for Candida parapsilosis CMGB79, respectively, 0.1 to 0.8% for Candida parapsilosis CBS604. The oleic acid represented the best substrate for lipase induction and cell growth for Kluyveromyces marxianus CMGB159. All the yeast strains tested positive for lipase synthesis in the presence of tributyrin. The antagonistic interactions between the studied strains were assessed using killer assays against Candida parapsilosis CMGB79 and CBS604. The killer activity was high for Kluyveromyces marxianus CMGB159 and good for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, the toxin representing a stress factor which determined modifications in the sensitive cells. The results obtained during the present work showed that the characterized yeast strains present an important potential for applications in food industry, in obtaining probiotic compounds or as therapeutic agents of biomedical interest.

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CSUTAK O., SABĂU E., PELINESCU D., CORBU V., CÎRPICI I., VASSU T. 2016, MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION AND METABOLIC SCREENING OF SOME YEAST STRAINS FROM FOODS. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 51-58.

Monitoring of air pollution in Budapest Hungary using tree leaf samplespreliminary results

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1
Written by Panna SEPSI, Edit SÁRKÖZI, Károly HROTKÓ, Levente KARDOS

The main goal of this study was to examine different leaf samples (Acer Platanoides 'Globusum’, Tilia Tomentosa, Fraxinus Excelsior 'Westhof's Glorie') collected alongside major roads and at Buda Arboretum of Corvinus University of Budapest. Three experiments were carried out at different times. For every one of them 30 leaf samples were collected from each taxon and from each area, on which 5 repeated experiments were performed (6 leaves per group). Groups of leaves were washed off with distilled water. After soaking and ultrasonic shaking filtrates were prepared. Conductivity (total salinity), pH, nitrate ion, ammonium ion, chloride ion, and sulphate ion concentrations were determined from these filtrates. According to our preliminary results higher air pollution level was associated to higher values of examined parameters. Detailed results are listed in our paper.

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Panna SEPSI, Edit SÁRKÖZI, Károly HROTKÓ, Levente KARDOS 2015, Monitoring of air pollution in Budapest, Hungary using tree leaf samples - preliminary results. Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1, PRINT ISSN 2285-5718, 161-164.

NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS USED IN FRYING OILS TO MINIMIZE THE ACCUMULATION OF TOXIC COMPOUNDS

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1
Written by Mihaela GHIDURUȘ, Mioara VARGA

The objective of this experiment was to determine if the quality of sunflower oil enriched with mixtures of two antioxidants of rosemary extracts was improved during frying. The enriched oils have been subjected to frying process at a temperature of 1800C ± 10C and held for about seven hours per day, for a period of 10 days. Samples of frozen cooked potatoes were fried in these oils seven times a day, every hour. Quality evaluation of the oils took place every day of the experiment, as far as refractive index, acidity, p-anisidine value, K232 and K270 and polar and oxidation compounds were concerned.

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GHIDURUȘ M., VARGA M. 2017, NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS USED IN FRYING OILS TO MINIMIZE THE ACCUMULATION OF TOXIC COMPOUNDS. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 119-124.

NEW BIO-PRODUCTS EFFICIENCY IN SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 2
Written by Nicolae IONESCU, Constantin-Bogdan POPA, Robert CHIRILĂ, Sorin DRĂGOI

Bio-products are increasingly used in agricultural production owing to their multiple advantages: they decompose organic matter, enter in dynamics with the humus from soil, fix nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere, solubilize fixed nutrients by clay-humic complex, block Fe3+ i.e. This paper presents the results obtained from using a complex of bioproducts: GeoCell-1, GeoAgit CNPK-1 and AlgaSanBa. They were applied either alone or in a complex mixture. The subsequent increase in the grain yields was important. Thus, winter wheat varied between 210 and 1010 kg.ha-1 on chernozem, and between 490 and 1430 kg.ha-1 on luvisol. Under the same conditions, sunflower increases varied between 290-730 kg.ha-1 on the first soil and 110-1190 kg.ha-1 on the second soil. Maize produced an addition of 70- 1030 kg.ha-1 in the first case and 110-1190 kg.ha-1 in the second case. The data demonstrate that the new bio-products are recommended for use in farm fields.

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IONESCU N., POPA C.B., CHIRILĂ R., DRĂGOI S. 2016, NEW BIO-PRODUCTS EFFICIENCY IN SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 2, ISSN 2285-5718, 79-84.

Olfactometric characterization of Tamaioasa Romaneasca wine come from different wine regions

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1
Written by Luminita VISAN, Ricuta DOBRINOIU, Gabriela MARGARIT, Silvana GUIDEA-DANAILA

The work refers to the analysis of aroma compounds identified in Tamaioasa Romanian wines from 2 distinct Romanian wine-growing areas: vineyard Stefanesti-Arges and Pietroasa, watching, and in particular the variation of flavorings depending on the region of origin. Gas chromatographic method coupled with mass Spectrometry were identified 6 esters, 3 higher alcohols, 1 aromatic alcohol, 2 terpenes, 1 lactone, 1 acid and 1 aldehyde. The high concentration of ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, isoamyl alcohol were identified; flavor specific Tamaioasa Romanian wine is given by 1-

Operation pollinator: A new way for the protection and implementation of insect pollinators in different agro-ecosystem - results of seven years of experiment in Italy

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1
Written by Tiziano GARDI, Fabio BERTA, Carlo Alberto FABBRI, Cristina MARCHETTI

Pollination by native honeybees and other pollinating insects is very important for the economy of farmer and the ecosystems. For these reasons, in Italy, a project between the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Perugia (currently DSA3) and Syngenta Crop Protection S.p.a. (currently Syngenta Italia S.p.a.) started in order to verify if the presence of autochtonous vegetation could be not only attractive for the pollinating insects but also fit for safeguarding the useful insects and increasing their populations. This study indicates that it is practical for growers to create valuable habitats suitable for natural pollinators. Moreover, it is possible to significantly reduce soil erosion and protect the water resources from pollution through a careful planning and management. Based on 5-years results in Italy and others European Countries, actually “Operation Pollinator” is applied in 13 European Countries besides Swizerland, UK and USA with the aim to safeguard native pollinating insects and honeybees. Our study, connected to the “Operation Pollinator”, can be considered as forerunner of the Greening Measures within the new EU Common Agricultural Policy (2014-2020).

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Tiziano GARDI, Fabio BERTA, Carlo Alberto FABBRI, Cristina MARCHETTI 2015, Operation pollinator: anew wayfor the protection and implementation of insect pollinators in different - results of seven years of experiment in Italyagro-ecosystem. Scientific Papers. Series "AgroLife Journal", Vol. 4 ISSUE 1, PRINT ISSN 2285-5718, 70-73.

OXYGEN INTAKE AND COLOR EVOLUTION IN SAUVIGNON BLANC AND MUSCAT OTTONEL WINES TREATED WITH ASCORBIC ACID AND GLUTATHIONE

Published in AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1
Written by George Adrian COJOCARU, Arina Oana ANTOCE

Understanding of antioxidants role in the wine matrix is an important aspect when it comes to sensory quality and conformity of the product. This study aims to compare the effects of sulphur dioxide (SO2) as a conventional antioxidant, alone or in combination with ascorbic acid (AA), in the presence or not of reduced glutathione (GSH) in white wines from Sauvignon blanc and Muscat Ottonel grape varieties. The results demonstrate that consumption of oxygen occurs differently, mostly according to the phenolic composition of the variety rather than the antioxidants added fortheir protection. Sauvignon blanc wines are believed, and our results proved it, to be more sensitive to chemical oxidation due to certain polyphenols that may act as a good substrate for oxidation. On the other hand, Muscat Ottonel wines seem to have more resistant polyphenols to oxidation, while the additional presence of higher concentrations of terpenes may improve this resistance due to their ability to act as antioxidant substances as well. Regarding color intensity values, which are desirable to be low in white wines, we observed that the smallest values were achieved in wine samples treated with sulphur dioxide with or without glutathione addition. Conversely, wines treated with ascorbic acid had the most intense color, due to the oxidation of polyphenols, irrespective of grape variety. The samples treated with combinations of sulphur dioxide, glutathione and ascorbic acid showed increased color intensity as compared to samples treated only with glutathione, but not to the same extent as in the case of samples treated with ascorbic acid alone. Knowing that the main tool of the winemaker for the protection of aroma compounds and polyphenols remains the use of antioxidant supplementation, a better choice was proven to be the addition of glutathione in the presence of a moderate concentration of SO2. Precautions should be taken when using ascorbic acid as antioxidant, because the depletion of SO2 is fast, and then ascorbic acid acts as pro-oxidant, releasing hydrogen peroxide.

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COJOCARU G.A., ANTOCE A.O. 2016, OXYGEN INTAKE AND COLOR EVOLUTION IN SAUVIGNON BLANC AND MUSCAT OTTONEL WINES TREATED WITH ASCORBIC ACID AND GLUTATHIONE. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 44-50.


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